Final Exam Questions
Answer FOUR of the following seven questions. 10 points each.
1. a) In the "Long-term relations..." article, what variable was tested as a primary mediator between prosocial media and prosocial behavior? Explain how that variable serves as a mediator in that context.
b) Identify two of the moderators tested in that article. What does it mean that those two variables could be moderators of this effect? What did the research find about whether or not those two variables actually moderated the effect?
2. a) What are the two factors that make up the prosocial personality orientation?
b) Although the factors are correlated with one another, it is only a moderate correlation. What does that mean about the relationship between these two factors?
c) Where you volunteered this term, describe how one of those two factors might promote prosocial behavior.
d) Where you volunteered this term, describe how the other factor might promote prosocial behavior.
3. a) Why do we likely find the time-ask effect?
b) Other research we discussed this term found that when individuals spent more time thinking about the opportunity to help they were less likely to do so. How do you resolve that finding with your answer to a)?
4. a) Caregivers are sometimes forced into that role. Although the caregiving behavioral system may kick in, according to the research, why are many such caregivers ill-equipped to provide what the caregiving system requires?
b) What are two forms of support that caregivers could receive that could help them become more autonomy-oriented helpers? Explain.
5. a) At the proximate level, why might we be willing to do more harm to ourselves than to others? Use course concepts in your answer.
b) At the ultimate level, why might we be willing to do more harm to ourselves than to others? Use course concepts in your answer.
6. a) Why are analytical thinkers less likely to exhibit the identifiable victim effect?
b) How might the identifiable victim effect be another example of people paying more attention to reliability cues than validity cues?
7. Using research from anywhere in the course, explain why it makes sense that increased contact with others should often lead to the greater likelihood of helping those others.
Answer FOUR of the following six questions. 15 points each.
1. a) Pick one concept that you believe is more important than most others we discussed this term in leading to helping behavior. Use evidence from the course to justify the importance of this variable.
b) Pick two other concepts from the course. Use evidence to explain why those are probably less significant than the concept you identified in a).
2. We discussed ingroup bias and outgroup bias a number of times this term. Using research from the course, describe three situations where ingroup bias or preference is related to or affects the likelihood of helping.
3. You have just been hired to work for some organization or business. Congratulations! Using three of the five principles identified in the Familiarity article, explain why you might be more likely to help some coworkers or superiors more than others at each of the three relationship stages described in the article.
4. Some of the articles we have read illustrate how language can be a powerful influence on behavior. Based on research from the course, describe three different strategies to increase helping of the homeless using language at the center of each strategy.
5. a) Imagine that you are in charge of recruiting volunteers for a non-profit organization. Identify a specific organization; it can be the one you volunteered at or another one. Use two course concepts to describe a strategy for recruitment. Use a third concept to explain how you might overcome some resistance from potential volunteers to your first strategy. Be sure your strategies are consistent with the research.
b) Imagine that you are in charge of raising funds for a non-profit organization. Identify a specific organization; it can be the one you volunteered at or another one. Use two course concepts to describe a strategy for raising funds. Use a third concept to explain how you might overcome some resistance from potential donors to your first strategy. Be sure your strategies are consistent with the research.
6. According to research, in which of the following situations are you more likely to help a person? Use course concepts to answer the question. Be sure to address both situations in your answer.
SITUATION 1: On a beautiful day, in a crowd of people, you encounter a stranger who is clearly struggling to carry a bunch of packages. Although many other people are around, you are the only one who notices the woman is struggling with the packages.
SITUATION 2: You and a friend happen across a guy out in the woods who recently cheated you out of some money. At the moment you notice he has his foot caught in a bear trap, and he appears to be bleeding from the wound. You remember when the same thing happened to you a while back.