Final Exam Questions
I will give you five of the following 10-point questions on the exam, and I will ask you to answer 4 of them.
1. a) In the "Long-term relations..." article, what variable was tested as a primary mediator between prosocial media and prosocial behavior? Explain how that variable serves as a mediator in that context.
b) Identify two of the moderators tested in that article. What does it mean that those two variables could be moderators of this effect? What did the research find about whether or not those two variables actually moderated the effect?
2. a) What are the two factors that make up the prosocial personality orientation?
b) Although the factors are correlated with one another, it is only a moderate correlation. What does that mean about the relationship between these two factors?
c) For yourself, describe an example of a situation that illustrates how one of those two factors is probably stronger for you.
d) For someone else you know (without naming him/her), describe an example of a situation that illustrates how the other factor is probably stronger for that person.
3. a) Why do we likely find the time-ask effect?
b) Other research we discussed this term found that when individuals spent more time thinking about the opportunity to help they were less likely to do so. How do you resolve that finding with your answer to a)?
4. a) Caregivers are sometimes forced into that role. Although the caregiving behavioral system may kick in, according to the research, why are many such caregivers ill-equipped to provide what the caregiving system requires?
b) What are two forms of support that caregivers could receive that could help them become more autonomy-oriented helpers? Explain. Be sure to address the concept of autonomy in your answer.
5. a) Most people probably don't identify with all humanity. Use two course concepts or two specific research studies to identify obstacles to identifying with all humanity.
b) Use one course concept or piece of research to explain how we might promote greater identification with all humanity among people?
6. a) In thinking about helping those who have experienced a natural disaster, why do people often pay more attention to reliability cues than validity cues?
b) How might the identifiable victim effect be another example of people paying more attention to reliability cues than validity cues?
7. Using at least two pieces of research from anywhere in the course, explain why it makes sense that increased contact with others should often lead to the greater likelihood of helping those others.
I will give you five of the following 15-point questions on the exam, and I will ask you to answer 4 of them.
1. a) Pick one concept that you believe is more important than most others we discussed this term in leading to helping behavior. Use evidence from the course to justify the importance of this variable.
b) Pick two other concepts from the course that can lead to an increase in helping. Use evidence to explain why those are probably less significant than the concept you identified in a).
2. We discussed ingroup bias and outgroup bias a number of times this term. Using research from the course, describe three situations where ingroup bias or preference is related to or affects the likelihood of helping.
3. You have just been hired to work for some organization or business. Congratulations! Using three of the five principles identified in the Familiarity article, explain why you might be more likely to help some coworkers or superiors more than others at each of the three relationship stages described in the article.
4. Some of the articles we have read illustrate how language can be a powerful influence on behavior. Based on research from the course, describe three different strategies to increase helping of the homeless using language at the center of each strategy.
5. a) Imagine that you are in charge of recruiting volunteers for a non-profit organization. Identify a specific organization. Use two course concepts to describe a strategy for recruitment. Use a third concept to explain how you might overcome some resistance from potential volunteers to your first strategy. Be sure your strategies are consistent with the research.
b) Imagine that you are in charge of raising funds for a non-profit organization. Identify a specific organization. It can be the same as in a). Use two course concepts to describe a strategy for raising funds. Use a third concept to explain how you might overcome some resistance from potential donors to your first strategy. Be sure your strategies are consistent with the research.
6. According to research, in which of the following situations are you more likely to help a person? Use course concepts to answer the question. Be sure to address both situations in your answer.
SITUATION 1: On a beautiful day, in a crowd of people, you encounter a stranger who is clearly struggling to carry a bunch of packages. Although many other people are around, you are the only one who notices the woman is struggling with the packages.
SITUATION 2: You and a friend happen across a guy out in the woods who recently cheated you out of some money. At the moment you notice he has his foot caught in a bear trap, and he appears to be bleeding from the wound. You remember when the same thing happened to you a while back.
7. a) I suspect you all are very helpful people. But there is likely a type of situation where you are less likely to help than you probably feel you should. Identify a possible mediating factor that is contributing to your unwillingness to help in that type of situation.
b) Use three course concepts to create a strategy you could apply to yourself to increase your helping in the situation you identified. Explain how your strategy, at least in part, addresses that mediating factor.