An annotated collection of more than 5000 links to resources and ideas for the teaching of social psychology and related courses organized by topic





Attitudes & Behavior

Attraction & Relationships

Conflict & Peacemaking


Genes, Gender, & Culture

Group Influence





Psychology in the Courtroom

Social Beliefs & Judgments

The Self
































Activities and Exercises



Multimedia Resources (audio, video)

Topic Resources


Class Assignments

Articles, Books, and Book Chapters

= new link as of February 1, 2017

Report broken links here


Activities and Exercises

Review of independent and dependent variables - a very interesting example to use

Understanding correlations - [added 6/15/15]


Enhancing table interpretation skills - good Teaching of Psychology article describing how to improve these skills by having students construct their own tables [added 12/13/13]

Free and easy Internet resources for stats and research design - good article from Jessica Hartnett in a recent Teaching of Psychology issue [added 8/13/13]

"Analyzing data from studies depicted on video" - The link above is to an article describing an interesting take on data analysis in the most recent issue of Teaching of Psychology. Here is supplementary material including a handout that goes with the assignment and descriptions/links to many of the videos. [added 8/13/13]

Lab activities for stats - [added 8/13/13]

"Beyond Milgram: Expanding research ethics education to participant responsibilities" - a set of activities and resources from the Office of Teaching Resources in Psychology [added 3/5/13]

Beyond the Purchase - Here's an intriguing website developed by a few psychologists: "At BeyondThePurchase.Org we have developed studies that allow professors to introduce consumer psychology, the psychology of money, and positive psychology to their students through our interactive and academic website. If you will be lecturing on: (1) the effects of money primes on attitudes and behavior, (2) the psychological benefits of experiential buying, or (3) measuring happiness, personality traits, or values you can introduce these topics by having your students first take some of our studies. After students complete any survey or study, they receive personalized feedback and learn more about the psychological construct measured or manipulated. For example, if you are discussing how the mere exposure to money effects your attitudes and behavior, we have a between-groups study which primes half of the participant's with phrases that make them think about money--then all participants complete the Fair Market Ideology scale. This study is modeled on work done by Eugene M. Caruso, Brittani Baxter, Kathleen D. Vohs, and Adam Waytz (2012). Click on this link to see the Free market Ideology study. On the feedback page we teach students about how thought about money, as suggested by previous research, makes people more likely to support free-market systems and believe they are fair. If you will be lecturing about the psychological benefits of experiential consumption, we have a within-groups study where participants reflect on both a material and experiential purchase (counter-balanced to control for order-effects) and answer questions about how the purchase improved their lives. Click on this link to see the Spending Choices and Happiness study. On the feedback page we teach students that that spending money on experiences makes people happier and contributes more to overall life satisfaction. Finally, if you are discussing topics like survey construction and usability, construct validity, or external validity, you can have students take any survey from our happiness and well-being surveys and have a class discussion. On each of these feedback pages we teach students how to interpret their scores on Subjective Well-being surveys. Barbara Lehman (from Western Washington University) developed a handout that helps professors facilitate a discussion about these topics in the classroom. If you are interested in using BeyondThePurchase.Org in your classroom, please email me at rhowell (at) sfsu (dot) edu and we can discuss how we could make this easy for you and your students. Also, if you are interested, we can develop an individualized link for your students so we can segment the data and provide you with de-identified data set for your student to examine in the class." [added 6/11/12]

Probability handout - Chris Wetzel provides this good formative assessment using a particular probability question. As many of you know, formative assessments are means of checking our students' understanding along the way, as well as an opportunity to give them some more practice with the concept or skill. The large and well-designed set of possible answers in this handout allows the instructor to really probe the students' thinking. Answers provided. [added 12/4/10]

Developing critical thinking skills in Social Psychology - My colleague Heather Coon and I embarked on a project to more systematically develop scientific thinking skills in our students. Click on the link to read about how we used brief research articles to develop a variety of thinking skills. You are welcome to use any of the materials. Feedback is always welcome. [added 9/20/08]

Unique tutorial on polling - "'Good morning. You are listening to WQXL radio. It's election day! This morning, the Journal-Times reported that the latest polls indicate Republican Higgins leading Democrat incumbent Fletcher by a slight margin of 7%, with a margin of error of +/- 5%. If these numbers hold, Higgins will be the first woman this city has ever elected mayor.' In an election season, it's common to hear news reports regarding poll results. What do these figures mean and where do we get them? Follow a year in a fictitious election campaign for an inside look at the mathematics behind the polls and the news you hear every day." [added 4/11/08]

Recreating Bargh, Chen, and Burrows (1996) in class - Jennifer Tickle presented a very interesting class activity at the 2007 SPSP teaching pre-conference. Remember the Bargh et al. study in which students were primed for old age, and then walked more slowly down the hall? Jennifer describes how you can recreate that study in your class and then discuss relevant social psychological and methodological issues. [added 7/7/07]

  • Update: Jennifer shared some of her stimulus materials and a copy of the assignment for the above activity.
  • Marcel Yoder used this activity in class. He then had a few questions about the demo for Jennifer. If you have used this activity or might consider it, I thought you might find Jennifer's replies helpful:
    • 1. Do you have the scrambled sentences? I didn’t, so I just had students create 4-word sentences using the elderly and neutral words.

      2. Do you do 30 items? I did 15 sentences in each condition and that seemed long.

      3. What did you have your class do as the participants worked on the task outside the room? I had my class do each list at the same time that the participants did it (to give them something to do, but it also allowed me to talk about within versus between designs given the class did within and the participants did between).


      "I’m glad to hear that you used the activity, and thanks for sharing how it worked for you. In response to your questions about the stimuli, I did create my own scrambled sentences using some of the words given in Bargh, Chen, and Burrows (1996). I have enclosed the sentence task that I use with the caveat that it may not be perfect and it has not been tested for anything more than my own classroom use! The attached document includes all the materials I use for the demonstration, including the sentence tasks I use. As you will see, for time reasons I only use 12 statements.

      As for your other question, while the first “participant” completes the scrambled sentence task I usually put one or two sample sentences up on the board so that the student can see what the “participant” is doing. Then, I usually just chat with the students a bit (I use this on the first day of class, so I get to know them a bit better). While the second “participant” does the task, I discuss the mood items. It does lead to some dead time for the observers in class, but the remainder of class is much more engaging for everyone. I don’t discuss too much about design until everyone is back in the classroom so that the volunteers don’t miss anything. When I get to the point that I am discussing that the IV is in the scrambled sentence task, I don’t actually have the students do the task, but I give them a handout with both versions on it and ask them to find out what is different (in other words, find the two sets of words) and I write the pairs that differ on the board as they find them. Then, I ask them to speculate what I might be manipulating by using those words. Usually there are a couple of close guesses that we discuss, and usually someone comes up with age as an idea which takes me to the topic of priming and stereotype activation. [added 1/13/10]

Correlation or Causation? - updated - I have added quite a few more links to my collection of popular press articles that often include questionable headlines. I use the links on this page to teach about the language of correlations versus causal relationships, the type of research commonly associated with each, and how to evaluate the quality and quantity of evidence to support such claims. I also have added an assignments section that includes brief tasks that could be used as in-class activities or out-of-class assignments. I would love to hear of any activity/assignment ideas you have or create to accompany this resource. I will add them to the site. Thanks. [added 1/1/07]

Correlations - from Traci Craig's Introduction to Social Psychology course [added 7/5/06]

Hypothesis generation - from Traci Craig's Introduction to Social Psychology course [added 7/5/06]

Critiquing a study - from Traci Craig's Introduction to Social Psychology course [added 7/5/06]

Illusory correlations - Excellent PowerPoint demonstration adapted and developed by Marcel Yoder -- You can send students to this link and they can complete the activity, or you can use this as an in-class activity. As Marcel suggests and research has demonstrated, this illusory correlation between distinctive events can also be connected to stereotyping and prejudice. Scott Plous provides a good description of such a link in his overview of prejudice research at the Understanding Prejudice website. [added 1/8/06]

"Demonstrating the importance of question wording on surveys" - Laura Madson, in an issue of Teaching of Psychology, provides an interesting exercise, with questions, for illustrating how easily survey wording can affect responses. Students are also able to practice data analysis. [added 3/3/05]

Statistics and research methods tutorials - good set of online tutorials on a variety of topics with a little interactivity for students [added 3/3/05]

SurveyWiz - This simple-to-use tool by Michael Birnbaum allows you or your students to create surveys for use on the Web or elsewhere. [added 6/9/04]

Thinking critically about causality and ethics - a few exercises for students to distinguish between correlations and causal relationships, from Julie Wright's Social Psychology course [added 4/06/04]

Evaluating scientific claims - Terry Humphreys presents his students with a nice, brief exercise on identifying common errors in evaluating scientific claims. Could be used as a brief paper assignment or an in-class activity, and, as Terry notes, it could be adapted for any psychology course including social. For the answer key, you can e-mail Terry at [added 7/23/03]

Internal Validity Tutorial - "In Part 1 of this tutorial, you will be introduced to nine sources of threat to internal validity. First, some relevant terms are defined. Then, some background explanation for a hypothetical experiment is presented. Finally, each of the nine threats is described, followed by an example and a contrasting nonexample as applied to the hypothetical experiment. An explanation is included of why the example represents a threat to internal validity and why the nonexample is not a threat. "In Part 2 of this tutorial, you will be asked to classify 36 hypothetical experiments as internally valid or not. If not, you must select the threat to internal validity from one of the nine sources introduced in Part 1." [added 2/4/03]

Evaluating Research - several interactive exercises on evaluating research from Brehm, Kassin & Fein, Social Psychology 5/e, Houghton Mifflin [added 11/07/02]

Several activities - good activities or assignments on confounding variables, operational definitions, correlation coefficients and a few more

Participate in psychology experiments - at this site you can 1) have your students participate in lab experiments from which you can download (in an Excel spreadsheet) the class' data for in-class analysis, 2) have your students participate in ongoing, online studies, and 3) view demonstrations of experiments without participating

Challenging misconceptions - "An in-class demonstration that aids in combating belief in psychics and in a claim made by some philosophers of science"

Critical thinking psychology exercises - excellent set of activities on inference vs. observation, operational definitions, correlations, jumping to conclusions, faulty thinking and thinking creatively - could be used as in-class or out-of-class activities

Research Methods

Teaching about the different research methods - a collection of ideas and resources from the Teaching of Psych Idea Exchange [added 12/08/12]

Which methodology? - interactive exercise asking students to visit Social Psychology Network's link to online studies to determine which methodology is being used and answer other questions - current link to SPN doesn't work; correct link is here (accompanies Social Psychology, Third Edition by Aronson, Wilson, and Akert)

Research design - in groups, students design studies and answer related questions based on given variables

Statistical Activities

Research readings and statistical exercises - This new resource from the Office of Teaching Resources in Psychology includes five collections of materials organized around five topics (including a social psych one). Each collection is introduced with a reading describing a research question, and then also includes Excel and SPSS data files as well as questions and answers for the research design. [added 6/10/12]

Teaching statistics and research methods - a nice collection of hands-on activities and demonstrations developed by Karen Holmes, Antonio Jemes, and Renita Stukes [3/29/09]

Statistical literacy - detailed, interactive modules to teach statistical concepts [added 4/11/08]

Data sets - The Center for the Teaching of Statistics makes 25 data sets available. [added 4/4/08]

"Web Interface for Statistics Education" (WISE) - links to tutorials, interactive exercises/demos, glossaries and more

Visualizing statistical concepts - excellent set of links to interactive illustrations and activities for a variety of statisical concepts from Chip Reichardt

Causal and Statistical Reasoning - The folks at Carnegie-Mellon University have created an excellent instructional site on causal reasoning. (Note: I had difficulty making it work in Netscape Navigator, but I got most of it to work in Internet Explorer.) Click on "Guest Access" to enter and use the site. It includes extensive instructional modules with interactive demonstrations and exercises. You will need to check your "System Requirements" at the site to make sure you have the necessary downloads to make the modules and "Applets and Shockwave" lab to work. No extra software is needed to use the large number of case studies included which illustrate the media confusing causal relationships with correlations and other such phenomena. Very well done. [added 8/30/02]

Multimedia Resources (Video)


"Can we trust psychological studies?" (10:14) - a podcast from Research Digest



How the media misrepresents scientific studies (19:27) - John Oliver on Last Week Tonight provides a very good and humorous take on this subject.

Correlation is not causation (6:00) - The first animated video does a nice job of illustrating and explaining the concept of correlation.  This video (8:37) addresses why a correlation does not imply causation, and it also explains how to test a causal hypothesis.

TED talks about statistics

Misrepresentation of statistics in the media - (4:14) an excellent example and discussion from Gerd Gigerenzer [added 12/13/13]

Deconstructing media polls - (5:30) Embedded in this blog entry is an excellent video clip from The Daily Show on why we should be skeptical of polls presented by TV news shows. [added 1/15/10]

Framing survey questions - (1:49) an amusing video clip from a TV comedy show (Yes Prime Minister) that illustrates well how survey results can be manipulated [added 7/3/09]

Statistics video series - (5:26) a video instructional series containing 26 half-hour programs on statistics is now available on the Web. [added 12/27/06]

View a research study - Delroy Paulhus provides a long and a short version of a video of a study on self-enhancement. I don't know what you might do with it, but it does illustrate some common steps in the research process. Scroll down to the end of the self-enhancement section. [added 3/23/04]


Class Assignments


Make your own IAT - FreeIAT lets you or your students create your Implicit Association Tests. [added 4/01/13]

Paper Assignments

Research Design Papers: Rubric - Here is an excellent rubric for evaluating research papers which include a literature review and a study design. Here are some other rubrics from Mark Stellmack and colleagues. [added 6/16/12]

Research Analysis Assignment - [added 12/12/12]

Developing critical thinking skills in Social Psychology - My colleague Heather Coon and I embarked on a project to more systematically develop scientific thinking skills in our students. Click on the link to read about how we used brief research articles to develop a variety of thinking skills. You are welcome to use any of the materials. Feedback is always welcome. [added 9/20/08]

Creating an informed consent form - a tutorial for students on why and how to create an informed consent form -- it includes a quiz to test them on their knowledge. [added 1/1/07]

Correlation or Causation? - updated - I have added quite a few more links to my collection of popular press articles that often include questionable headlines. I use the links on this page to teach about the language of correlations versus causal relationships, the type of research commonly associated with each, and how to evaluate the quality and quantity of evidence to support such claims. I also have added an assignments section that includes brief tasks that could be used as in-class activities or out-of-class assignments. I would love to hear of any activity/assignment ideas you have or create to accompany this resource. I will add them to the site. Thanks. [added 1/1/07]

Experience sampling - Want your students to conduct some experience sampling? Here's some free software to do just that on a PDA (personal digital assistant, e.g., Palm Pilot) developed at Boston College by Lisa Feldman Barrett and Daniel Barrett. [added 7/6/06]

Research design scoring guide; Final paper scoring guide; Thesis/hypothesis paper rubric; Source paper rubric; Authentic Assessment Toolbox - The first link is to a very detailed scoring guide for the design of research projects. The second link is to a very detailed guide for grading the final paper for this project. The third link is to a rubric for scoring a paper identifying a thesis and a hypothesis for a research project. The fourth link is to a rubric for an assignment on locating and citing sources for a research project. All of these are from Bill Altman. Why do I call the first two scoring guides and the last two rubrics? Because the last two scoring scales include the criteria used to evaluate the student work (as does the first two), but the last two also articulate levels of performance for each criterion. The inclusion of criteria and levels of performance are the defining attributes of a rubric. To learn more about rubrics follow the final link above. [added 2/22/06]

Methodological critique - Mark Schaller asks his Thinking Clearly About Psychology students to critique the article "Don't the girls get prettier at closing time: A country and western application to psychology." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 5, 122-125. [added 3/23/04]

How can Psychologists Obtain Accurate Measurements? - This is an assignment from Karen Gasper's Self and Social Judgment course in which she asks students to visit the IAT site, another measurement site, read a linked article and answer a few questions in response. [added 7/23/03]

Writing Hypotheses - Also from Ben Le, this assignment requires students to submit a hypothesis (and a brief methodology for testing it) ten times a semester. The class discusses how it would test some of the hypotheses. [added 5/1/02]

Confounded variables assignment - several scenarios are presented for which students are to identify the independent, dependent and confounding variables, and describe how to "unconfound" the experiment - good in-class activity also

Operational definitions assignment - students practice operationally defining terms and distinguishing between correlational and experimental questions - possible in-class activity

Correlation coefficients assignment - students practice verbally and graphically describing different coefficients - possible in-class activity


Illusory/spurious correlation / illusion of causation - From Jeff Ricker: "Increasing college costs causes autism." [added 4/01/13]

Experimenter bias - Remember Bargh et al.'s study in which subjects primed with old age-related words subsequently walked more slowly down the hallway? Apparently, the experimenter in that study was aware of the priming condition for the participants. Did that affect the outcome? Stephane Doyen redid the study and intentionally introduced the potential for experimenter bias. Some "experimenters" were told to expect the participants to walk more slowly, while some were told to expect participants to walk more quickly. Participants' walking speed matched those experimenter expectations. I like Bargh's reaction when he was apparently informed of these results. [added 6/18/12]

Correlation does not imply causation - a good Dilbert cartoon [added 6/18/12]

Correlation does not imply causation - cartoon [added 1/15/12]

Importance of wording in surveys - Do 77% of Americans favor the "choice" of the public option in health care reform? Well, as usual, it depends on how you ask it. [added 1/13/10]

Illusion of causation - The Family Circus cartoon [added 12/26/07]

Third variable problem - This is one of my favorite examples of the third variable problem. Researchers found that infants who had a night-light in their bedrooms were more likely to develop myopia (nearsightedness). People (including scientists) began speculating about how the night-light could lead to myopia. Since then, evidence suggests that there was likely a third variable to explain this correlation: myopic parents were more likely to put night-lights in their children's bedrooms and more likely to pass on myopic genes to their children.
[added on 12/1/04]

"Faith-based fudging" -good example of how research results can be distorted to create different interpretations [added 11/20/03]

"The median isn't the message" - excellent essay by the late Stephen Jay Gould on the value of possessing statistical knowledge, in this case about the median [added 11/20/03]

Topic Resources

Ten famous psych studies that have been difficult to replicate - We have to rethink some of our classroom demonstrations.  The link is to the article on the 10 studies.  Also, here is an essay from Dana Carney, first author one of the famous studies on how "power poses" can create neuroendocrine changes and promote increased risk tolerance, responding to recent reviews and a meta-analysis finding no such effect.  Her response has been hailed as a very positive and appropriate acknowledgment of the role of replication in science.

Tips for teaching stats and research design - Looks like a good resource from the Society for the Teaching of Psychology

"Under the hood of Mechanical Turk" - A good overview of current issues regarding the use of Mechanical Turk as a research tool, including cost and representativeness of the sample.

"Watch our for the experienced study participant"

Are online participants paying attention? - Do you use Amazon Turk or another online tool for recruiting participants?  This study suggests your online participants may actually be paying more attention and putting in more effort than those on campus.

Nice contrast between well- and poorly-designed studies - Question: Does painting prison cells pink reduce prisoner aggression? [added 6/15/15]

"Twenty tips for interpreting scientific claims" - [added 6/15/15]

Which are the most sweariest states in the U.S.? - I like the way they collected the data for this. [added 4/24/14]

New source of participants for your students' research - The Society for the Teaching of Psychology has created a new resource where students can publish their research and also access a new participant pool. [added 4/24/14]

Infographics for research methods - Created by Alexis Grosofsky from my alma mater, Beloit College [added 8/13/13]

Correlation and causation in parenting - I don't think Sam Sommers would expect me to put this blog entry under Methods, but that is where I am going to use it in my teaching. His column provides an excellent example of while correlation does not imply causation, the lack of correlation can suggest the lack of causation. [added 12/24/12]

Facebook research site - Authors of an article reviewing research on Facebook have created an excellent website to keep track of such research: Facebook in the Social Sciences. You can find an extensive bibliography of Facebook research and other resources. [added 7/8/12]

"Do psychology findings replicate outside the lab?" - This blog entry discusses a comparison of lab and field results. Overall, the lab findings fared well out in the real world. However, social psychology was one of the weaker areas. [added 7/8/12]

WEIRD subjects in psychology studies - Below is an article about how students at the end of the semester may be different from those at the beginning as participants and those online may be different than face-to-face participants. This article warns about our reliance on WEIRD participants: Western, educated, industrialized, rich, democratized. [added 5/31/11]

Time of semester, online or not, affects type of participant - Students who sign up for studies online and earlier in the semester are a little bit different. [added 12/28/10]

What are online research participants really doing? - Blog entry describes research on a new tool (a piece of computer code called UAT -- UserActionTracer) that permits online researchers to track the actions of the participants. [added 10/30/10]

An online research methods textbook - [added 1/19/10]

Correlation does not imply causation - Great cartoon! However, as was pointed out to me, since it is only a single instance it really isn't a correlation either. [added 4/25/09]

"Exotic culture that never was" - I cannot vouch for the complete accuracy of these blog posts, but they describe some fascinating tales of scientific mischief and misinterpretation. Second entry; third entry. [added 6/7/08]

Free resources for methods in program evaluation and social research - a sociological methods site with a large number of links to resources on topics such as surveys and qualitative research [added 7/24/06]

Mediating variables - Karl Wuensch wrote this document, "Statistical tests of models that include mediating variables," which provides a good overview of the topic for faculty and students alike. [added 7/6/06]

"Correlation still isn't causation" - Good series of back-and-forth letters to the APS Observer on this issue that could be good for your students to review and discuss
[added 7/6/06]

"Do rats show a Mozart effect?" - interesting analysis of how research results can be misinterpreted and misrepresented using an effect that has received wide-spread media attention [added 4/5/04]

"Fallacies and pitfalls in psychology" - Kenneth Pope provides an excellent list of 18 logical fallacies and psychology-related examples of them. [added 3/30/04]

"Pitfalls of data analysis" - a good essay on the use and misuse of statistics by Clay Helberg [added 7/16/03]

"Tutorials" on several topics - David Kenny provides some clearly written explanations of a variety of methodological and interpersonal perception topics. [added 7/16/03]

Online research methods textbook [added 3/21/02]

Another online research methods text [added 7/10/02]

Research methods tutorial - some good info and quiz questions at the end of each section [added 3/21/02]

"Research in the Psychological Laboratory: Truth or Triviality?" - Anderson, C.A., Lindsay, J.J., & Bushman, B.J. (1999). Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 3-9. Scroll down page to link to view entire article

Specific Methods

Using the Internet for research - APS Observer article describes some of the newer tools possible. [added 8/13/13]

Day Reconstruction Method example (Are you enjoying yourself? How do we know?) - One method of measuring your level of happiness or enjoyment is through Kahneman's Day Reconstruction Method in which participants "divide the last day up into discrete episodes and rate their feelings during each one." However, as this blog entry describes, that method led to some "bizarre" results such as "people seem to spend an inordinate amount of time doing things they claim not to enjoy, like spending time with their children, and commuting." (I just realized, I've been commuting to work with my children the last couple years. Yikes!) A new approach suggests asking people not only how they feel during these activities but also how worthwhile or meaningful (i.e., rewarding) they are. Adding such questions to the method changes what people report as enjoyable. Spending time with children is still a common activity, but now it is described as more pleasurable. Commuting .... not so much. [added 1/19/10]

Day Reconstruction Method - Daniel Kahneman and colleagues have developed a new and exciting research method that "assesses how people spend their time and how they experience the various activities and settings of their lives, combining features of time-budget measurement and experience sampling." Norbert Schwarz is nice enough to provide the article describing the method as well as the materials used in the method at his website. [added 3/1/05]

Content analysis resources - The best aspect of this site is the set of links to many other good content analysis sites. [added 4/5/04]

Structural equation modeling - links to relevant resources [added 4/5/04]

Case-study approach to studying groups - how-to includes example of case study - from Don Forsyth [added 3/6/02]

Studying Groups: SYMLOG Questionnaires - developed by David Heise and adapted from Robert Bales' SYMLOG Case Study Kit, these online questionnaires can be used to "measure the behavior of group members whom you have observed, and also your perceptions of the way you behave in various settings, and your subjective attitudes about your own behavior" - data can be entered online and a graph of results can be produced online as well. [added 3/6/02]

Research Methods Lab - very well-designed, interactive review of five research methods - includes description of five methods, examples in different disciplines, practice activities and quizzes for check on understanding - requires free Shockwave plug-in which can be downloaded at the site

"The Two Disciplines of Scientific Psychology" - Cronbach's presidential address to the APA (1957) in which he describes the two "streams" of research (experimental and correlational)

"New Poll Shows Correlation is Causation" - humorous, mock article reporting what everyone always knew!

Research Methods chapter - using Stanley Milgram as a "case study" from Dodge Fernald's text Psychology


How NOT to report survey data - some survey advice/humor linked to at Jessica Hartnett's blog Not awful and boring examples for teaching statistics [added 8/13/13]

"A brief guide to questionnaire development" - [added 12/24/12]

How many gays and lesbians are there? - This blog entry reviews a Gallup poll of Americans on this question. However, I would suggest there is an anchoring effect. The scale is skewed so much towards the higher responses that it is not surprising that participants apparently overestimated the number. [added 8/20/11]

Surveys: The importance of interviewer-respondent interaction - "This study uses data collected from 90 never-married young adults in rural Malawi to compare reports on first sexual encounters between a standard survey and an in-depth interview. A significant fraction of young women who claimed in the survey to have never been sexually active affirmed sexual experience during the in-depth interview, fielded shortly thereafter." [added 7/17/10]

"What is a survey?" - a book online about creating good surveys by Fritz Scheuren [added 3/23/08]

A blog on analyzing polling data - "Political arithmetik: Where numbers and politics meet" is a blog from Charles Franklin, a professor of political science, in which he explains political bias in polls, the statistical analysis of them, and more. Lots of good examples and very detailed analysis. [added 7/6/06]

Survey and questionnaire research methods - lots of good resources collected by Gregory Herek for his course of the same name [added 4/06/04]

CensusScope - provides access to Census 2000 data and trends back to 1990 and 1980 with reports on topics such as segregation - presented by the Social Science Data Analysis Network at the University of Michigan [added 3/23/04]

Census Resource Discovery Service - Similar to CensusScope for U.S. data, this site provides census data for the UK with some very good accompanying instructional materials. [added 3/23/04]

"Best practices for survey and public opinion research" - advice and ethical guidelines from the American Association for Public Opinion Research [added 7/10/02]

"In defense of self-reports" - APS Observer article by Rebecca Norwick, Y. Susan Choi, and Tal Ben-Shachar [added 3/21/02]

Evaluation Research

Evaluation resources - a lot of information about different data collection tools and processes involved in evaluation, from the Innovation Network [added 3/21/02]

Free resources for methods in program evaluation and social research - Extensive set of quality links to survey methods and other research topics [added 3/21/02]

Critical Thinking in Psychology

Media misrepresents study...again - What I like about this blog entry describing research that finds that overhearing cell phone calls is more annoying than distracting is that the entry provides links to media articles that completely misrepresent what was found. Good examples for your students. [added 8/13/13]

The perils of confusing correlation and causation - [added 5/31/11]

Do girls prefer pink? - a good description of how the media often overblows research findings [added 11/18/07]

"Who paid for that study? Source affects outcome" - a study looking at industry-funded research [added 7/06/07]

"Diet of fish 'can prevent' teen violence" - interesting example of how media can distort research findings [added 11/20/03]

Critical thinking psychology exercises - excellent set of activities on inference vs. observation, operational definitions, correlations, jumping to conclusions, faulty thinking and thinking creatively - could be used as in-class or out-of-class activities

Critical thinking about evidence - "the six rules of evidential reasoning" from James Lett

Ethical Considerations

"The Least of My Brothers" - This freely available online short course on research ethics from the Poynter Center for the Study of Ethics and American Institutions at Indiana University-Bloomington describes the famous PHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee. "From 1932 to 1972, 399 poor black sharecroppers in Macon County, Alabama were denied treatment for syphilis and deceived by physicians of the United States Public Health Service. As part of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, designed to document the natural history of the disease, these men were told that they were being treated for 'bad blood.' In fact, government officials went to extreme lengths to ensure that they received no therapy from any source. As reported by the New York Times on 26 July 1972, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study was revealed as 'the longest nontherapeutic experiment on human beings in medical history.'" [added 7/16/03]

APA Ethics Code

Statistical Stuff

The limits of null-hypothesis testing - excellent essay in the Chronicle of Higher Education

Bayes for Beginners - APS President C. Randy Gallistel introduces readers to Bayesian statistical analysis in these two columns.

Spurious correlations - Here's a great collection. [added 6/15/15]

New statistics blog - Jessica Hartnett has started a new blog: "Not awful and boring examples for teaching statistics." Lots of good examples and ideas. [added 8/13/13]

Dataset generator - Richard Landers has developed a program which will create datasets for you. [added 8/13/13]

SPSS tutorials and movies - The link is from UCLA Academic Technology Services. This link takes you to more video tutorials for SPSS. To view them click on the PASW (SPSS) selection on the right. This link is to another good tutorial from Amherst College. [added 1/29/12]

Statistics resources - CAUSEweb presents lots of good instructional resources for undergraduate statistics including lesson modules, computer and hands-on activities, datasets, analysis tools, and multimedia. [added 1/29/12]

Teaching with Data - " is portal of teaching and learning resources for infusing quantitative literacy into the social science curriculum." You can find datasets, tables and figures, and activities to use in your classes. [added 8/20/11]

SPSS Tutorials - This page contains a lot of good tutorials including these excellent video tutorials on a variety of SPSS analyses. [added 7/5/06]

Facebook -- a new source of data - [added 3/23/08]

"I'll bet you don't understand error bars" - a nice little quiz (and explanation) for you and your students [added 7/14/07]

Use and misuse of statistics and data - Two very good sites -- this link takes you to a tutorial of sorts which nicely reviews types of evidence, comparing different types. It includes a good section on the problems with statistics. This link takes you to STATS, a site which presents and analyzes lots of good examples of uses and misuses of statistics. [added 12/31/06]

Tutorial for R - a tutorial for the statistical program R [added 1/15/06]

Statistics workshops - a collection of tutorials from Thomson Learning [added 1/9/06]

Methods: Baseball Salaries Database - Want some data for your students to analyze? I see some relative deprivation here! [added 11/11/03]

Statistical computing resources
[added 11/11/03]

VassarStats - excellent, comprehensive website explaining how to perform numerous statisitical computations with interactive elements for practice and illustration from Richard Lowry

Visualizing statistical concepts - excellent set of links to interactive illustrations and activities for a variety of statisical concepts from Chip Reichardt

An introduction to sampling "Web Interface for Statistics Education" (WISE) - links to tutorials, interactive exercises/demos, glossaries and more

Statistical Assessment Service - "a nonprofit nonpartisan organization, examines the way that scientific, quantitative, and social research is presented by the media, and works with journalists to help them convey this material more accurately and effectively" - contains lots of good examples of how statistics are used and misused in the media

Statistical and research methods concepts - good review of concepts effectively using graphics and text

Hyperstats - well-designed, online stats "text"

Simulations and demonstrations - excellent set of java simulations on many stats concepts

Data sets and examples - small but good collection of data sets, examples, lectures and links to other stats sites from David Howell

Gallery of Data Visualization - "The best and worst of statistical graphics" - good examples of how graphs can be used effectively and used to "lie"

Randomness - excellent, extensive site on randomness tailored for different levels of statisical understanding - includes interactive exercises, interactive quiz and more

Ongoing Research

Participate in research through a smartphone app - Your students may enjoy this -- from Dan Ariely [added 8/13/13]

Participate in psychology experiments - at this site you can 1) have your students participate in lab experiments from which you can download (in an Excel spreadsheet) the class' data for in-class analysis, 2) have your students participate in ongoing, online studies, and 3) view demonstrations of experiments without participating

Comprehensive social list - Scott Plous maintains an excellent list of ongoing studies at the Social Psychology Network site

Comprehensive general list - John H. Krantz maintains an excellent list for APS of online studies across many areas of psychology including social psychology

Surveys, Scales and Tests on the Web

You can find a variety of attitude measures and other scales (e.g., self-esteem, self-consciousness) online at the Social Psychology Network.

Questionnaire Instrument Compendium - Alan Reifman has created the most comprehensive list of social-personality measures available online. If you know of others, send them to Alan. [added 11/24/07]


Articles, Books, and Book Chapters (available online)

Book Chapter

Baron, J., & Siepmann, M. (2000). Using web questionnaires for judgment and decision making research. In M. H. Birnbaum (Ed.), Psychological Experiments on the Internet (New York: Academic Press). (pre-publication version)

Dunn, D. (2009). Research methods in social psychology. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Chapter 1 (Studying Social Psychology) can be viewed here. From RESEARCH METHODS IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY by Dana S. Dunn. 2009 by Dana S. Dunn. Reprinted with permission of Wiley-Blackwell.

Greenwald, A. G. (2004). The resting parrot, the dessert stomach, and other perfectly defensible theories. In J. Jost, M. R. Banaji, & D. A. Prentice (Eds.), The yin and yang of social cognition: Perspectives on the social psychology of thought systems (Pp. 275–285). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. [added 1/20/05]


Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. (1997). External validity of "trivial" experiments: The case of laboratory aggression. Review of General Psychology, 1, 19-41.

Anderson, C.A., Lindsay, J.J., & Bushman, B.J. (1999). "Research in the Psychological Laboratory: Truth or Triviality?" Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 3-9.

Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., & Funder, D. C. (2007). Psychology as the science of self-reports and finger movements: Whatever happened to actual behavior? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 396-403.

Bem, D. J. (in press). Feeling the future: Experimental evidence for anomalous retroactive influence on cognition and affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Blanton, H., & Jaccard, J. (2008). Unconscious racism: A concept in pursuit of a measure. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 277-297.

Bushman, B. J. & Wang, M. C. (1998). Using normal quantile plots to explore meta-analytic data sets. Psychological Methods, 3, 46-54.

Bushman, B. J., & Wells, G. L. (2001). Narrative impressions of literature: The availability bias and the corrective properties of meta-analytic approaches. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1123-1130.

Bushman, B. J. & Yuan, K.-H. (2002). Combining standardized mean differences using the method of maximum likelihood. Psychometrika, 67, 589-608.

Epley, N., & Huff, C. (1998). Suspicion, affective response, and educational benefit as a result of deception in psychology research. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 759-768.

Gosling, S. D., & Vazire, S., Srivastava, S., & John, O. P. (2004). Should we trust Web-based studies? A comparative analysis of six preconceptions about Internet questionnaires. American Psychologist, 59, 93-104.

Greenwald, A. G. (1975). Consequences of prejudice against the null hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 82, 1-20.

Greenwald, A. G. (1976). Within-subjects designs: To use or not to use? Psychological Bulletin, 83, 314-320.

Greenwald, A. G., Gonzalez, R., Guthrie, D. G., & Harris, R. J. (1996). Effect sizes and p-values: What should be reported and what should be replicated? Psychophsysiology, 33, 175-183.

Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 17-41.

Greenwald, A. G., Pratkanis, A. R., Leippe, M. R., & Baumgardner, M. H. (1986). Under what conditions does theory obstruct research progress? Psychological Review, 93, 216-229.

Greenwald, A. G., & Ronis, D. L. (1981). On the conceptual disconfirmation of theories. Pesonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7, 131-137.

Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 61-135.

Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). Most people are not WEIRD. Nature, 466, 29.

Kahneman, D., Krueger, A. B., Schkade, D., Schwarz, N., & Stone, A. A. (2004). A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: The Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). Science (3 December 2004), 1776-1780.

Levav, J., & Fitzsimons, G. J., (2006). When questions change behavior: The role of ease of representation. Association for Psychological Science, 17, 3, 207-213.

Plous, S. (1996). Attitudes toward the use of animals in psychological research and education: Results from a national survey of psychologists. American Psychologist, 51, 1167-1180.

Plous, S. (1997). Animal research in psychology. American Psychologist, 52, 1250-1252.

Plous, S. (1998). Signs of change within the animal rights movement: Results from a follow-up survey of activists. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 112, 48-54.

Plous, S., & Herzog, H. A., Jr. (2000). Poll shows researchers favor lab animal protection. Science, 290, 711.

Plous, S., & Herzog, H. (2001). Reliability of protocol reviews for animal research. Science, 293, 608-609.

Spencer, S. J., Zanna, M. P., & Fong, G. T. (2005). Establishing a causal chain: Why experiments are often more effective in examining psychological process than mediational analyses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 845-851.

Vul, E., Harris, C., Winkielman, P., & Pashler, H. (2009). Puzzlingly high correlations in fMRI studies of emotion, personality, and social cognition. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 274-290.

Wegner, D. M. (1992). The premature demise of the solo experiment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 504-508.

Wells, G. L., & Windschitl, P. D. (1999). Stimulus sampling and social psychological experimentation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1115-1125.

Windschitl, P. D., & Wells, G. L. (1996). Measuring psychological uncertainty: Verbal versus numeric methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2, 343-364.




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