An annotated collection of more than 5000 links to resources and ideas for the teaching of social psychology and related courses organized by topic

 

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Attraction & Relationships

 

Activities and Exercises

Examples

 

Multimedia Resources (audio, video)

Topic Resources

 

Class Assignments

Articles, Books, and Book Chapters

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Activities and Exercises

The Similarity Project - In one version of this activity, starting in groups of four, students are asked to identify as many similarities as they can between their different groups. Then they join larger and larger groups to see if they can identify even more similarities. [added 12/29/11]

Playing a Facebook game - Dan Ariely has created a Facebook activity that he can use as a research tool and your students can use to learn about different social psychological phenomena. Of course, none of your students may be on Facebook... [added 4/1/11]

Morph your own faces - cool, online program in which you get to manipulate facial features [added 12/4/10]

Conversational analysis - Here is an activity from Jessica Collett's Social Psychology course in which students analyze possible conversations they might have. Here is some background info on conversational structure. [added 3/6/10]

The Pairing Game - From the following source comes this in-class activity to illustrate the matching phenomenon:

Ellis, Bruce J; Kelley, Harold H. (1999). The pairing game: A classroom demonstration of the matching phenomenon. Teaching of Psychology, 26, 118-121. Abstract: Describes 2 versions of an in-class simulation that allows students to directly experience the matching phenomenon and explore issues concerning mate selection, social exchange, and related psychological concepts. Students are randomly assigned a value (either a numerical value or a list of adjectives), which they place on their forehead so others can see it but the student cannot. The goal is to pair off with another student with as high a value as possible. The simulation, called the Pairing Game, illustrates how matching on similarity can occur, even in the absence of knowledge of one's own value and merely by seeking the highest value possible in a partner.

Jim Friedrich reports that he uses this activity and adds: "I simply have my pairs that have emerged from the game arbitrarily designate a "Partner A" and a "Partner B"; then each pair gets to plot their coordinates with Partner A on the X asis and Partner B on the Y. There's always a very nice scatterplot, as the demo itself produces pretty good matching. Even medium size correlations of r = .5 tend to look pretty vague in small-N scatterplots, but the patterns jump right out whenever I do this (with or without the actual statstistical calculation)." He adds: "The article mentioned might go nicely with a recent finding reported in the Journal of Family Psychology (I believe) showing that heterosexual relationships in which the man is slightly less attractive than the woman exhibit better interpersonal relationships. The interpretation - or at last one of them - is that one of the things that less attractive men offer to attract more attractive woman with a broader range of choices is greater attentiveness, willingness to listen, etc. I've only read a summary and haven't been able to get the original yet, so don't quote me on this. For a more formal and comprehensive treatment of using market and economic principles in an attempt to understand key elements of heterosexual relationships, I regularly assign the following article by Roy Baumeister and Kathleen Vohs. [Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D. (2004). Sexual Economics: Sex as Female Resource for Social Exchange in Heterosexual Interactions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 339-363.] It always generates lots of reactions (ranging from amused to heated) and provides a good opportunity for talking about what one looks for or doesn't in good theory -- ability to parsimoniously explain a range of existing phenomena, ability to generate new testable predictions, use of principles that are "independently motivated" (developed for purposes other than for explaining the phenomena in question), etc. It also provides opportunities to talk about things like naturalistic fallacy errors and the temptation to evaluate psychological theories (provisional and testable descriptions of nature) by the way they make us feel or the social ends they might or might not serve." Here's a link to a related article. [added 5/3/08]

Creating an "average" face - Interesting site lets you create an average face from images provided. The site also explains how these average faces are created. "You can also average your own uploaded faces!" [added 4/4/08]


More fun with faces - "Morph your picture!" "Find out which celebrities you resemble!" Tells you how it works. [added 4/4/08]

Even more fun with faces - Robin Musselman used the "Human Race Machine" as part of a class to, well, I'll let Robin tell it:
"I try to think of an overarching theme each semester. In this particular semester it was the fall after the first face transplant and somewhere I had read something that this was a procedure that could have been done previously, but hadn't because of the significance of the face to individual's psyche. It really got me thinking and so I decided to use the face as a theme that fall.

I don't necessarily tell students....here is the theme, but I try to interweave it throughout the semester. That same semester I was using wikis for the first time so the first day of class I took everyone's picture and then created a Who's Who in Psychology page with each class have an individual page for each student. I posted their first name and picture and then they could create from there. Introduce themselves to the class, if you will, and they continued to add to those pages throughout the semester. I gave students the right to remove their picture if they wanted to, but I think only one or two out of 120 did so.

We talked about face recognition in the brain section, perception allowed for some unique illusions with face symmetery and other facial illusions, in learning and memory we talked about remembering names and/or faces, we talked about facial _expression_, the baby's innate fascination of faces, culture and beauty, I can't remember all of the little and not so little tie ins off the top of my head. I used the film Faces (with John Cleese) and the books, The Autobiography of the face, and another book (not the companion to the video Faces) The Face, which was a great resource. About 2/3 into the semester I had arranged for the Human Race Machine to come onto campus for a week and students could transform their faces into another race as well as age themselves 20 years. Students really were fascinated by this (I had seen it at a museum in Maryland....for info see, http://www.humanracemachine.com/faq.html

At the end of the semester we used the facial recognition software and many students posted those images that were "supposed" to look like them on their wiki pages. Again, students really enjoyed it and in fact, I had promised that three weeks after the semester I would "take down" the wiki pages with student pictures, etc. and then I had several students contact me asking if I still had their pages so they could transfer them to another site. All in all it was a fun semester." [added 4/4/08]

Online activity - Jean Mandernach sends her students to participate in an online experiment and then answer some questions about it. [added 1/15/06]

Face Filter - fun site where one can morph a face to fit several emotional responses and types of attractiveness [added 4/06/04]

Mere exposure effect [added 3/31/04]

 

Multimedia Resources (Audio / Video)

Audio

"Transcending shame and seeking forgiveness" - apodcast from Science of Relationships [added 2/18/14]

Relationship Matters Podcast Series - Listen to experts in their fields discuss their work -- affiliated with the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. [added 6/27/12]

The secret of pronouns - NPR interviews James Pennebaker about his fascinating research on the use of pronouns and their relationship to dating. [added 6/26/12]

Am I Normal (Sexually)? - interesting, 30-minute episode in BBC radio's Am I Normal series [added 1/20/12]

Video

Why we don't want to be alone - (2:49) [added 2/18/14]

Bad first date - (2:44) Fun video. Maybe you can ask your students if they have been the giver or receiver of such persistence? How would they respond? [added 8/5/13]

Passionate love - (41:35) presentation by Elaine Hatfield at the 2012 APS convention [added 8/5/13]

An amusing ad - (0:45) That's all I can say. I don't want to give it away. Like some people. [added 12/07/12]

Expedia creates dramatic ad for marriage equality - (3:20) [added 12/07/12]

Why your soulmate isn't that special (mathematically, that is) - (3:59) A great song by Tim Minchin -- thank you Science of Relationships (http://www.scienceofrelationships.com/) for making me aware of it! [added 6/27/12]

Pheromone Parties! - (4:22) This story from the Science of Relationships includes a video clip from the Colbert Report describing a dating fad: Attending pheromone parties. [added 6/26/12]

"Love in a backward world" - (5:01) for your entertainment [added 6/26/12]

Flipping male/female roles in relationships - amusing video - in two parts [added 6/25/12]

Third date = sex? - (1:44) A clip from the show The Big Bang Theory raises the question of whether "the idea that the third date is the 'sex date,' the date when it is deemed appropriate for a new couple to have sex" is a social norm or just a myth. [added 1/21/12]

Mating and loss aversion - (4:21) Steven Neuberg and his colleagues Yexin Jessica Li and Douglas Kenrick "discuss their research on how evolutionary motives such as mating and self-protection influence individuals' sensitivity to loss aversion." [added 1/21/12]

Technology and relationships - (2:47) Psychologist discusses research on our heavy consumption of technology and its link to relationship happiness/success. When you are done reading this issue at your computer or phone make sure that you go share it with a partner or kid or Juggalo. [added 1/21/12]

Dating and irrationality - (6:01) Dan Ariely discusses decision making in the dating scene. Here - (5:28) is a second video on the topic. [added 1/20/12]

What is French kissing called in France? - (1:52) Here's a cute little video montage of kissing accompanied by some facts including the answer to the above question. [added 1/20/12]

Does spousal conflict impair the immune system? - (6:14) video and text describing an interesting study testing this question
[added 1/20/12]

Extreme photo retouching - (2:29) This video illustrates how many of the images we see are often modified to eliminate blemishes and make more appealing. [added 8/14/11]

Why online dating is so unsatisfying - (7:41) Watch an interview with Dan Ariely discussing the topic. [added 12/16/10]

Hikikomori in Japan - (9:35) This form of social isolation, Hikikomori, in which, typically, young boys and men lock themselves in their rooms for years in some cases, appears to be fairly unique to Japan. This link takes you to Part 1 of the video. You can find Part 2 on the video page. [added 1/15/10]

Propinquity - (3:54) That's physical proximity to you young whippersnappers. Here's a song ("Somebody") from Reba McEntire that captures well our tendency to choose from those nearby. [added 12/12/07]

Class Assignments

Projects

Attraction and Relationships - Now that the excellent Science of Relationships site has been around a bit (at least in Internet time), it has accumulated a number of good resources for teaching. The site creators have graciously compiled some of those resources and assignments at the link above. [added 12/12/12]

Ratings of attractiveness - Ever seen any of those "Am I hot or not" sites? Here is a long list of them that perhaps you or your students can use in some project. [added 1/10/06]

Paper Assignments

Analyzing a play - Chuck Huff asks his students to view three plays during his Social Psychology course: Macbeth (two versions) and A Streetcar Named Desire. Then he asks them to analyze the plays in terms of how close relationships are portrayed.

Variety from an Intimate Relationships course - Gary Lewandowski lets students choose from a variety of assignments including comparing popular press claims versus the research and creating a "how to" guide for relationship success. [added 3/1/05]

 

Examples

Attraction

Mere exposure effect [added 3/31/04]

Evolutionary Factors - Seinfeld Episode: Evolutionary factors in mate selection can be seen in the episode in which they try to fix up George with a date. He asks questions about his potential date's physical attributes and she asks questions about George's status, power and resources. Contributed by Steve Fein. [added 4/28/02]

Physical attractiveness - Physical attractiveness plays a big role in how we think of and respond to people. I've worked as a summer camp counselor for the past two years and you have to try and treat each kid the same but it is inevitable that you will have favorites. I remember one year there were two really bad kids in particular who were always getting into trouble. One was a little girl who was so cute. She always had a cute little outfit on, here little ears were pierced, and was hilarious. But she was always getting herself into trouble or not listening. The other kid was a little overweight and not so attractive boy who also knew just how to muster up trouble. But when it came to punishing the two it was hard to be equal and fair and generally what tended to happen is the cute girl would get away with a lot more. She could somehow get us to forget or be less mad about the trouble she had caused and distract us with her humor or by other tactics. And the little boy would often get in more trouble and get a lot less positive attention....Thinking back, my favorite kids have never really been unattractive, and I even feel horrible admitting that, but it's true. [added 4/16/08]


Physical Attractiveness - Something funny came to mind while I was looking over the section on physical attractiveness. Specifically, I was looking at the idea that attractive children are given the benefit of the doubt more often than less attractive children. This is so true! I work with two three-year-old boys that can look at me with their respective sets of baby blues and browns and melt me to the ground. It is so difficult to discipline a child that looks so cute when they look at you. In these situations, I consciously have to think about what I'm doing in order to discipline the gorgeous kids the same way I treat the other children.

Physical Attractiveness - North Central College uses the "attractive" idea to persuade people to attend the college. While going to class on a couple of days, I remember seeing a photographer on campus taking pictures of two or three attractive young students. I instantly thought of the course catalogue. The young people on the cover will help emphasize the stereotype of the student's physical appearance: happy, intelligent, kind, sociable and successful.

Propinquity (physical proximity)...again! - another good example -- a spoof from The Onion -- hat tip to Jeff Ricker for this one [added 12/26/07]

Propinquity - Here's a song ("Somebody") from Reba McEntire that captures well our tendency to choose from those nearby. [added 12/12/07]

Propinquity (Physical Proximity) - When we discussed the idea that we make friends with those close to us this made me think of the floor that I live on now. Last year when we saw who was going to live on our floor we were very upset. Our end of the hall was all football players but the other end was all soccer players. Normally football hates soccer. At first things were a little tense but after a while some friendships developed. Because they were close it was easy to see if they wanted to go eat or go out or something and we found out they aren't as bad as we thought. If they didn't live close we would probably hate them still.

Relationships

Equity -- there's a common source of argument. Does one person doing garbage equate to the other ironing? Does one person doing laundry equate to the other vacuuming? Early on in our marriage these issues cropped up frequently. Now as I look at it, 16 years later, these just aren't issues anymore. Each does what has to be done as it needs doing. Sometimes one of us has more time than the other. Consideration of the other's needs creates the equity anymore -- not the amount of equal effort. That's where the twist builds from because you know the other person will be there for you.

Equity - When we first married, I worked full-time while my husband finished college (before my liberated days). This was out of concern for his and our welfare. I did not expect anything in return. Now sixteen years and a family later, I am going to finish school. It is not easy. My personality takes a real nose dive during semesters. My energy level is good for squat. My husband does 75% of the housework. (The other 25% doesn't get done.) My level of patience will never get me a mother-of-the-year award. Yet in one of my reflective, depressive moods last year, I asked my husband why he put up with it. His response was "you put me through school years ago; it's the least I can do now." That is love.

 

Topic Resources

Those liked face-to-face are also liked online - [added 7/11/09]

Small world research on instant messaging - Answer: 6.6 degrees of separation [added 10/11/08]

The paradox of poygamy - "Contrary to popular belief, most women benefit from polygynous society, and most men benefit from monogamous society. This is because polygynous society allows some women to share a resourceful man of high status." [added 4/13/08]

Subliminal smells and likeability - story of research finding that in humans consciously undetectable odors alter social preferences [added 3/21/08]

Laughter is the way we connect - an article about research on the role laughter plays in our social world [added 11/17/07]

"Subliminal nude pictures focus attention" - research interpreted to suggest an evolutionary benefit for attending to sexual stimuli [added 12/30/06]

"Beast buddies: Do animals have friends?" - an intriguing question and article from ScienceNews [added 6/9/04]

Propinquity (Physical Proximity)

Long-distance relationships cartoon - Ahh, propinquity. [added 1/29/12]

"18-year-old miraculously finds soulmate in hometown" - an amusing article from the satirical online newspaper The Onion -- ahh, propinquity! [added 12/30/06]

Similarity

"Likes attract, but do they last?" - The answer is what I tell my students to write on psych exams if they have no clue to the answer: It depends! In this case the research suggests that it depends on the partners' levels of self-control. [added 8/5/13]

Similar music tastes indicate similar values which foretells attraction - [added 7/2/12]

Interpersonal Relationships

Unconscious, rather than conscious, evaluations good predictors of marriage satisfaction - Or as the author of this article, Ben Le, states, "our unconscious feelings about our partners might be the Magic 8-Ball when it comes to future marriage satisfaction." [added 2/18/14]

Do you want a happy or sad breakup song? - After a non-interpersonal loss people prefer listening to happy music, but prefer sad music after an interpersonal loss. [added 8/5/13]

"The science behind 3 popular dating apps" - [added 8/5/13]


Why the sexual double standard? - Interesting discussion of why promiscuous men are studs while promiscuous women are sluts [added 8/5/13]

"Chemistry + Timing = Relationship Success" - a good discussion of these elements in a Science of Relationships blog entry [added 8/5/13]

Relationship humor - [added 8/5/13]

When husbands provide sensitive support - ... it benefits the relationship [added 8/5/13]

"Catfishing" and relationships - Don't know yet what "catfishing" is? Read all about it in this blog entry. [added 8/5/13]

Seven ways to improve your relationship - A good infographic summarizing research on the topic -- clicking on the image takes you to an article that elaborates on it. Surprisingly, "don't get catfished" is not one of the seven. [added 8/5/13]

"Why love literally hurts" - an APS Observer article looking at the neural link between social and physical pain [added 8/5/13]

"What implicit processes tell us about romantic attachment" - another good APS Observer article [added 8/5/13]

Relationship humor - more here; more here; more here - When I want my dose of relationship humor I always turn to Science of Relationships. Unlike relationships, it never disappoints. [added 8/5/13]

What makes a "jealous type"? - good blog entry on jealousy [added 8/5/13]

A drum-off - interesting little video of some relationship conversation through drumming [added 8/5/13]

New love - interesting New York Times article on the research of new love [added 8/5/13]

When do we offer versus request support? - Casual friends offer support; close friends offer and request support. [added 8/5/13]

Consensual non-monogamy - [added 8/5/13]

Online dating - Review research about dealing with all the choices [added 1/12/13]

Does gift giving undermine relationships? - [added 1/12/13]

"T-Rex did not evolve for romance" [added 1/12/13]

Do we like funny in possible mates? - good discussion of some research on what men and women find attractive in the opposite sex in terms of humor [added 1/12/13]

Invited over for "muffins" - Ahh, what did we do before Science of Relationships? [added 1/12/13]

Some relationship humor - and more, and more - from Science of Relationships [added 1/12/13]

"Lack of matching between partners predicts divorce" - [added 1/12/13]

How to make "couples friends" - Here's an interesting blog entry about how couples can improve the quality of their life and their relationship if they find other couples with which to be friends. [added 7/2/12]

A little relationship humor - Along with thoughtful and interesting blog entries like the above, Science of Relationships also throws in a good does of relationship humor as well. Just like any good relationship should. And here's a little more humor. [added 7/2/12]

Some "cracked" relationship advice - For your amusement, possibly. [added 7/2/12]

"Is watching The Bachelorette bad for your relationship?" - interesting blog post from Science of Relationships [added 7/2/12]

"Who says 'I love you' first in a relationship?" - [added 7/2/12]

Relationship humor - Okay, I found it amusing. [added 7/2/12]

Is cohabitation detrimental to marriage? - Dylan Selterman, at Science of Relationships, provides a nice review of the controversy and what the research actually says. [added 7/2/12]

"The power of hello" - Sam Sommers makes a good case for the simple acts of smiling and saying "hello." [added 7/2/12]

Valentine's Day humor - [added 7/2/12]

"Language style predicts relationship longevity" - "Recently, researchers have found that similarity in communication patterns predicts mutual romantic interest and relationship stability 3 months down the road. And we’re not even talking about similar use of big fancy words. Rather, it’s the small words that we would generally consider “fillers”, such as pronouns (I, her, that), articles (a, an, the), conjunctions (and, but, because), and the like that matter. In what researchers call “language style matching’” (or LSM, for short), individuals’ conversations may begin to subtly become synchronous. Sometimes our conversations are high in LSM, which means there is a lot of matching in language use, whereas other conversations are low in LSM, which means we are speaking to one another in quite different styles. In the researchers’ first study, 40 speed-dating couples had their 4-minute interaction recorded, and transcriptions of these interactions were entered into a language analysis computer program. Couples who had higher LSM (again, they matched in their use of pronouns, articles, conjunctions, etc.) were more likely to show mutual romantic interest in one another. This effect was not due to the total number of words being spoken in the conversation (that is, it’s not because two “Chatty Cathys” were paired up and talking each other’s ears off)." [added 1/29/12]

Happiness vs. Time in relationships - another good cartoon/graph [added 1/29/12]

More committed couples use more plural nouns - Warning: Scary picture.
[added 1/29/12]

"Twilight" and relationship violence - Another good blog entry from the Science of Relationships site -- what effect might all these teenage vampire movies/shows/stories have on relationship abuse?
[added 1/29/12]

Could you date a Democrat/Republican/Libertarian...?
[added 1/29/12]

Attachment style and long-lasting relationships - Does a more secure attachment style lead to better success in maintaining long-term relationships? Like relationships themselves, it's complicated. [added 1/29/12]

Top 15 sources of conflict in relationships - From the excellent blog Science of Relationships, created by Ben Le, Gary Lewandowski, and Tim Loving. That's right, Dr. Loving.
[added 1/29/12]

Dating equation: half your age + 7 years - "A common rule of thumb, at least on the internet, is that it’s okay to be interested in someone 'half your age plus seven' years. According to this rule, it would not be creepy for a 30 year old to date a 22 year-old, but an 18 year-old would be off-limits. Although this is a fun rule of thumb, what does research say about age preferences for potential mates?"
[added 1/29/12]

Disclosing to downers - "Have you ever wanted to share good news with friends but were afraid they would rain on your parade because they’re downers? Researchers recently discovered that people avoid disclosing positive information to low self-esteem friends and romantic partners in order to avoid a negative interaction (e.g., the 'downer' pointing out the downside). Interestingly, we don’t keep the good news to ourselves to protect our close others’ feelings – we primarily focus on our own outcomes!"
[added 1/29/12]

"Love is blind. Your friends aren't." - Blog entry describes research on whether you can predict your own relationship's breakup better than your friends can.
[added 1/29/12]

"Love is abstract, but sex is concrete" - Here is some interesting research on how generating abstract versus concrete construals can affect how we think about relationships. If you have some difficulty explaining the concept of construals to your students, this example provides a nice way of describing the concept.
[added 1/29/12]

"The complicated psychology of revenge" - from the APS Observer
[added 1/29/12]

Relationship humor! - Some amusing cartoons found at the excellent blog Science of Relationships; a second one, and a third.
[added 1/29/12]

Most romantic U.S. city? - I always like to see interesting ways of measuring things. Most romantic city? The one that rented the highest percentage of romantic comedies through Redbox (a kiosk often located in front of or inside stores from which someone can rent a movie). Follow the link to find out if it is your city... [added 1/29/12]

Humor and attraction - "A recent study indicates that men are more likely than women to use humor when getting to know potential romantic partners, and that women use sense of humor as a criteria for evaluating partners more than men. In addition, when analyzing online personal ads, researchers found that men tended to mention their own sense of humor, while women stated a preference for a funny partner. Finally, a woman’s rating of a man’s sense of humor predicts her romantic interest in him. However, a man's perception of a woman’s sense of humor is unimportant for his desire to get to know her." [added 1/29/12]


A couple good relationship cartoons - first one; second one - I added the new site Science of Relationships to the front page of this site. The site has already produced a lot of good blog entries commenting on the topic. They also occasionally include some good cartoons like those above. [added 8/18/11]

"Are the men of the African Aka tribe the best fathers in the world?" - [added 5/30/11]

The study of smiling - very interesting story in the APS Observer on the many facets of smiling research and what it all means [added 12/24/10]

"Which is worse.... - your partner having a heterosexual or a homosexual affair?" Men and women answer differently. [added 12/24/10]

Providing "invisible" support to a loved one - "Recipients whose partners provided more invisible emotional support such as reassurance or expressions of concern, but believed they had received less emotional support, experienced greater declines in anger and anxiety. This was also true for invisible practical support such as advice or direct offers of assistance. Additionally, in the case of invisible practical support, recipients experienced increases in self-efficacy." [added 12/24/10]

Online dating - This blog entry provides a good compilation of research on online dating. [added 10/30/10]

"Romantic songs make women more open to dates" - [added 7/21/10]


"Want romance? Show a little gratitude" - Men and, particularly, women were less likely to break up with someone who had showed small acts of gratitude. However, no manipulation occurred, so is the above headline warranted? [added 7/21/10]

Sexual infidelity - "Research has documented that most men become much more jealous about sexual infidelity than they do about emotional infidelity. Women are the opposite, and this is true all over the world." The prevailing theory is an evolutionary one: "Men learned over eons to be hyper-vigilant about sex because they can never be absolutely certain they are the father of a child, while women are much more concerned about having a partner who is committed to raising a family." This new research, however, suggests a different explanation. [added 2/7/10]

Mimicry during speed dating - "Women hoping to appeal to speed-dating partners should try subtly mimicking the words and body-language of their dates. That's according to Nicholas Gueguen whose new study shows that women who mimic are rated by men as more sexually attractive." [added 1/18/10]

"Does falling in love make us more creative?" - "A new study demonstrates that thinking about love--but not about sex--causes us to think more 'globally,' making it easier to come up with new ideas." [added 1/18/10]

"The states of marriage and divorce" - This Pew Research Center report is a state-by-state analysis of the current status of marriage and divorce. [added 1/18/10]

"Living apart together" - In other words, you are in a relationship, but you don't live with the person. "We use two surveys to describe the demographic and attitudinal correlates of being in "Living Apart Together" (LAT), cohabiting, and marital relationships for heterosexuals, lesbians, and gay men." [added 1/18/10]

Hug is the new handshake - Interesting New York Times article describes an apparent trend in which teenagers regular hug each other as greetings, including between males. [added 7/11/09]

Speed dating - good article describing how the phenomenon of speed dating has provided a wealth of opportunities for research [added 7/11/09]

"Admiring celebrities can help improve self-esteem" - What? Yes, this study found that engaging in these "fake" relationships with celebrities (called parasocial relationships) can benefit those with low self-esteem. [added 8/09/08]

Online dating - interesting blog entry about how online dating has been frustrating, leading to some new approaches [added 6/6/08]

Precursor of healthy adult marriages? - A report from the Rand Corporation looks at adolescent romantic relationships as precursors of healthy adult marriages. [added 12/1/07]

Realistic female dolls for men - "Thousands of men are shelling out $6,500 for hyper-realistic dolls that answer all their needs -- and don't talk back." No mention in the article of women buying men dolls. What would a male doll that answered all of women's needs be like? [added 12/1/07]

"The hidden purpose of chat-up lines" - Why do men use pick-up lines? One study investigates that "chat-up lines may be a way for men to select for a particular type of woman." [10/13/07]

The social regulation of emotion - In the latest issue of the APS Observer, there were a number of excellent articles reporting on some interesting talks at the 2007 APS convention that should be good reads for your students. [10/13/07]

The quest for romance - An interesting essay in the Feb. 2007 issue of the APS Observer summarizes some research. [added 7/7/07]

What does new love look like? - a New York Times article describing some research in which brain scans were conducted of newly-in-love individuals while they were looking at pictures of their beloved [added 7/06/07]

95% of Americans have had pre-marital sex - An extensive review of data from the Guttmacher Institute finds that "by age 20, 77% of respondents had had sex, 75% had had premarital sex, and 12% had married; by age44, 95% of respondents (94% of women, 96% of men, and 97% of those who had ever had sex) had had premarital sex. Even among those who abstained until at least age 20, 81% had had premarital sex by age 44. Among cohorts of women turning 15 between 1964 and 1993, at least 91% had had premarital sex by age 30. Among those turning 15 between 1954 and 1963, 82% had had premarital sex by age 30, and 88% had done so by age 44." [added 12/30/06]

MySpace - Confused about how MySpace and other social networking sites work? Here's one explanation of MySpace from the How Stuff Works web site. [added 7/6/06]

"Romance in America" - The first report is a summary of survey data of young singles collected by the Pew Research Center. [added 7/6/06]

Alcohol in relationships - "Alcohol problems in intimate relationships: Identification and intervention" is a guide from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. [added 1/8/06]

The science of love: BBC / PBS - two different sites addressing this question [added 4/05/04]

Sexual orientation - research site by authors

"Social Behavior Transformed With One New Gene" - report from ScienceDaily (1999)

Physical Attraction

Faces

FaceResearch.org - Whoa! This is a cool site. Created by a couple researchers, this site provides access to a lot of studies readers can participate in, cool demos in which you can average different faces or transform faces by criterion such as age, and more. Here are the results of one of the researchers' studies in which they created an average woman's face for every country. Here is a story about this research. H/T to Marianne Miserandino. [added 2/18/14]

Battle of the titans: Familiarity vs. Averageness - It's cool when researchers come up with ways to pit two powerful phenomena against each other. Who wins this cage match? [added 8/5/13]

The U.K.'s most beautiful female face? - [added 7/2/12]

What determines female facial beauty? - A "new golden ratio" is purportedly found in this study: "Female faces were judged more attractive when the vertical distance between their eyes and the mouth was approximately 36 percent of the face's length, and the horizontal distance between their eyes was approximately 46 percent of the face's width. Interestingly, these proportions correspond with those of an average face." [added 1/18/10]

Face databases - If you are doing research on faces, or want to use the stimuli for other purposes [added 1/18/10]

With or without makeup - Marianne Miserandino passed along this interesting reminder of how carefully the famous and beautiful guard the perception of their beauty. The French version of Elle magazine has released covers of famous stars with and without makeup. [added 1/18/10]

Symmetry versus averageness - A summary of some good research continuing to look at these two factors in our perception of attractiveness -- the question addressed here is, how do you tease out these two factors independently? [added 7/11/09]

"Is it really impossible to ignore an attractive face?" - [added 7/11/09]

Can the next president have asymmetrical eyebrows? - amusing article from The Onion [added 4/20/08]

The Face of Tomorrow - Very interesting site in which a photographer creates a composite photo from many faces he has taken in a certain community. He claims that the composite photo may represent what people in that community will look like in the future -- the face of tomorrow. [added 12/1/04]



Attractive students get better grades - Unfortunately this article confuses correlation and causation, but the results are interesting. [added 2/18/14]

Show some skin and others will think... - some significant and surprising things about you. Read about the interesting studies. [added 2/18/14]

The beer goggles effect - Do people appear more attractive after you have been drinking? Do you think you are more attractive? [added 2/18/14]

Are you more or less attractive than you think? - This blog entry describes a clever way of finding out, and the answer is..... [added 8/5/13]

What pickup lines work? - It depends! If the man is attractive and the woman is looking for a short-term relationship, the type of line didn't matter. But for a long-term relationship, women preferred direct and innocuous lines over cute or flippant lines. Men who use the more direct and innocuous lines are perceived as more trustworthy and intelligent. What do they mean by a cute pickup line? See here. [added 8/5/13]

Do men prefer butts or boobs? - I'm not going to say "It depends." I'm not going to say anything. I'll just let you read the research. [added 8/5/13]

And do women prefer.... - a full beard, heavy stubble, light stubble, or a cleanly shaven face? [added 8/5/13]

Or, he can just carry around a guitar case - very interesting study [added 8/5/13]

Humor and attractiveness - If you were asked which two items (from chocolate, hair spray, or a plastic bag) you would take to a deserted island and explain why, would you give a humorous response? Would that make you more attractive? [added 8/5/13]

Physical attractiveness, personality, and values - Sam Sommers reviews research finding that we believe physically attractive individuals are more conscientious, extraverted, and open to experience. Not true. However, the researchers found that physically attractive people did differ in their values. Specifically, they were more traditional and conformed more to societal expectations. [added 1/12/13]

Women in red seen as more sexually interested - "To understand why, Pazda and his colleagues conducted a simple experiment. They showed 25 men a photo of a single woman doctored to look, in different cases, like she was wearing either a red or white T-shirt. The researchers then asked the volunteers to gauge, on a scale from 1 to 9, how keen the model seemed to be on romance. In other words, the men answered the question: 'Is she interested in sex?' Men interpreted the red outfit as a signal that the woman was indeed more open to sexual advances. In fact, the guys tended to grade the woman's disposition to sex about 1 to 1.5 points higher when she was wearing a red rather than a white tee, Pazda and colleagues report online this month in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology." [added 7/2/12]

Attractive? Depends on the context - Sam Sommers reviews some research that suggests whether we find someone attractive is also tied to the context in which we view that person. Hey, Sam, we get it: Situations Matter. Why don't you just write a book or something? [added 7/2/12]

One downside of attractiveness - Same-sex others reviewing your job application may respond more negatively to your attractiveness. Here's another link on the topic. [added 1/29/12]

Similarity and attraction - Sam Sommers provides a good summary of some research on how we are attracted (and want to sit by) similar others. [added 1/29/12]

Oxytocin boosts trust, and attractiveness in more masculine male faces - Interesting study -- more masculine males can be seen as more dangerous. But a shot of oxytocin up the nose caused both males and females to view the more masculine males as more attractive. [added 1/29/12]

Women rate happy men less attractive than proud men; opposite for women - I'm embarrassed to say that male shame was even more attractive than happy, smiling men to women. [added 8/18/11]

"Beauty is in the mind of the beholder" - a good article in the APS Observer reviewing research on what we find attractive and the benefits of beauty [added 8/18/11]

The medicalization of beauty - Using the new TV show, Bridalplasty, in which brides-to-be compete for cosmetic surgery, this blog entry explores how beauty, along with other phenomena, has become "medicalized." [added 5/30/11]

Attractiveness of leg length - Yes, we've measured eye width, cheekbone height, and all sorts of facial features in determining what we find attractive. Now we learn that "male and female silhouettes with short and excessively long legs were perceived as less attractive across all nations." [added 12/24/10]

Do Disney characters promote "beauty is good" stereotype? - abstract of article that suggests they just might [added 12/24/10]

Are we attracted to our relatives (and ourselves)? - Here is an interesting blog entry describing research suggesting that we are attracted to faces that look like ours and our relatives, perhaps suggesting that an incest taboo is "necessary" for that reason. [added 10/30/10]

Men on top, women on the bottom - "If you're hoping to increase your online appeal to the opposite sex, you might want to consider where on the screen you place your photo. A study that's in press at Social Cognition has shown that women rate men's photos as more attractive when they're placed near the top of the screen. By contrast, men rate women's photos as more attractive when they're located near the bottom of the screen." [added 1/18/10]

"Importance of attractiveness depends on where you live" - Urban? It matters. Rural? Not so much. [added 1/18/10]

"An unwanted kiss from a moral man" - This study asks would you rather receive an unwanted kiss from a moral man or a consensual kiss from an immoral one. [added 1/18/10]

"Chicks dig men in flashy cars" - "Previous studies have shown that male attractiveness can be enhanced by manipulation of status through, for example, the medium of costume. The present study experimentally manipulated status by seating the same target model (male and female matched for attractiveness) expressing identical facial expressions and posture in either a 'high status' (Silver Bentley Continental GT) or a 'neutral status' (Red Ford Fiesta ST) motor-car." [added 7/11/09]

Susan Boyle - Lots of good social psych in the Susan Boyle story. If you are not familiar with it read the above. More here.
[added 7/11/09]

High-pitched voices most attractive - [added 10/11/08]

Attractive girl mimed Olympics ceremony song - You may have heard about this -- the young girl who sang a song as part of the Olympics was not deemed attractive enough to be on display, so a more attractive girl replaced her on stage and mimed the song. [added 10/11/08]

Personality and physical attractiveness - description of research in which the manipulation of personality influenced the perception of physical attractiveness [added 3/21/08]

Is there a "beauty premium" on TV game shows? - interesting study [added 7/7/07]

"Ugly girl killed: Nation unshaken by not-so-tragic death" - An amusing article from the satirical online newspaper The Onion [added 12/30/06]

Beauty in the election process - a study "The looks of a winner: Beauty, gender, and electoral success" looks at the role of attractiveness in Finland's politics. [added 12/30/06]

Jamaican Symmetry Project - This is a very interesting project in which researchers "focus on the possibility that dancing ability may correlate with the dancer's degree of bodily symmetry, commonly used in evolutionary studies to measure developmental stability and hence genetic quality." Read what they found, and watch some of the dance video as well. Also read a related research article published in Nature. [added 2/22/06]

What is sexy? - A columnist notes that U.S. Patrick Fitzgerald showed up on a sexiest man list despite lacking "conventional" physically attractive traits. The columnist asks, "Is there a female equivalent to a 'sexy' Patrick Fitzgerald?" In other words, it raises the question of differences between what men and women find attractive. [added 1/14/06]

"Fertile women rate other women as uglier" - interesting article describing research about possible hormonal influences on attractiveness ratings [added 4/05/04]

Articles, Books, and Book Chapters (available online)
Book Chapters

Bartholomew, K., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Methods of assessing adult attachment: Do they converge? In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 25-45). New York: Guilford Press.

Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Self-report measurement of adult romantic attachment: An integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 46-76). New York: Guilford Press.

Finkel, E. J., & Fitzsimons, G. M. (in press). The effects of social relationships on self-regulation. In K. D. Vohs, & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Fitzsimons, G. M., & Finkel, E. J. (in press). The effects of self-regulation on social relationships. In K. D. Vohs, & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Fitzsimons, G. M., & Finkel, E. J. (in press). Outsourcing effort to close others. In L. Campbell, J. La Guardia, J. Olsen, & M. Zanna (Eds.), The 12th Ontario symposium: The Science of the Couple. Psychology Press: Philadelphia.

Morgan, H. J., & Shaver, P. R. (1999). Attachment processes and commitment to romantic relationships. In J. M. Adams & W. H. Jones (Eds.), Handbook of interpersonal commitment and relationship stability (pp. 109-124). New York: Plenum.

Swann, W. B., Jr., Chang-Schneider, C., & Angulo, S. (2007). Self-verification in relationships as an adaptive process. In J. Wood, A. Tesser & J. Holmes (Eds.) Self and Relationships, Psychology Press: New York.

Wegner, D. M., Giuliano, T., & Hertel, P. (1985). Cognitive interdependence in close relationships. In W. J. Ickes (Ed.), Compatible and incompatible relationships (pp. 253-276). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Wegner, D. M. & Lane, J. D. (1994). Secret relationships: The back alley to love. In R. Erber & R. Gilmour (Eds.), Theoretical frameworks for personal relationships (pp. 67-85). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Wegner, D. M., & Lane, J. D. (1995). From secrecy to psychopathology. In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed.), Emotion, disclosure, and health (pp. 25-46). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Articles

Acevedo, B. P., & Aron, A. (2009). Does a long-term relationship kill romantic love? Review of General Psychology, 13, 59-65.

Alonso-Arbiol, I., Shaver, P. R. & Yarnoz, S. (2002). Insecure attachment, gender roles, and interpersonal dependency in the Basque country. Personal Relationships, 9, 479-490.

Andreoletti, C., Zebrowitz, L.A., & Lachman, M.E. (2001). Physical appearance and control beliefs in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 969-981.

Apicella, C. L., Feinberg, D. R., & Marlowe, F. W. (2007). Voice pitch predicts reproductive success in male hunter-gatherers. Biology Letters, 3, 682-684.

Back, M. D., Schmukle, S. C., & Egloff, B. (2008). Becoming friends by chance. Psychological Science, 19, 439-440. [added 7/29/08]

Balsam, K.F., Beauchaine, T.P., Rothblum, E.D. & Solomon, S.E. (2008). Three-year follow-up of same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont, same-sex couples not in civil unions, and heterosexual married couples. Developmental Psychology, 44, 102-116.

Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, Kathleen, D.(2004). Sexual Economics: Sex as female resource for social exchange in heterosexual interactions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 339-363. [added 7/6/05]

Bearman, P. S., Moody, J., & Stovel, K. (2004). Chains of affection: The structure of adolescent romantic and sexual networks. American Journal of Sociology, 110, 44-91. [added 3/3/05] (See also university press release about article.)

Bleske, A., & Buss, D.M. (2000). Can men and women just be friends? Personal Relationships, 7, 131-151.

Bleske, A.L., & Buss, D.M. (2001). Opposite sex friendship: Sex differences and similarities in initiation, selection, and dissolution. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1310-1323.

Bleske-Rechek, A., & Buss, D.M. (2006). Sexual strategies pursued and mate attraction tactics deployed. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1299-1311.

Bosson, J. K., Johnson, A. B., Niederhoffer, K. & Swann, W. B. Jr. (2006). Interpersonal chemistry through negativity: Bonding by sharing negative attitudes about others. Personal Relationships, 13, 135-150.

Botwin, M., Buss, D. M., & Shackelford, T. K. (1997). Personality and mate preferences: Five factors in mate selection and marital satisfaction. Journal of Personality, 65, 107-136.

Buss, D. M. (1991). Conflict in married couples: Personality predictors of anger and upset. Journal of Personality, 59, 663-703.

Buss, D. M. (1992). Manipulation in close relationships: The five factor model of personality in interactional context. Journal of Personality, 60, 477-499.

Buss, D. M. (1994). The strategies of human mating. American Scientist, 82, 238-249.

Buss, D.M. (1996). Paternity uncertainty and the complex repertoire of human mating strategies. American Psychologist, 51, 161-162.

Buss, D.M. (1998). Sexual Strategies Theory: Historical origins and current status. Journal of Sex Research, 34, 19-31.

Buss, D.M. (2003). Sexual strategies: A journey into controversy. Psychological Inquiry, 14, 217-224.

Buss, D.M. (2006). Sexual selection and human mating strategies (letter to the editor). Science, 312, 690-691.

Buss, D.M. (2006). Strategies of human mating. Psychological Topics, 15, 239-260.

Buss, D. M., Abbott, M., Angleitner, A., Biaggio, A., Blanco-Villasenor, A., Bruchon Schweitzer, M [& 45 additional authors]. (1990). International preferences in selecting mates: A study of 37 societies. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 21, 5-47.

Buss, D.M. & Dedden, L.A. (1990). Derogation of competitors. Journal of Social & Personal Relationships, 7, 395-422.

Buss, D.M., & Haselton, M.G. (2005). The evolution of jealousy. Trends in Cognitive Science, 9, 506-507.

Buss, D.M. Larsen, R.J., & Westin, D. (1996). Sex differences in jealousy: Not gone, not forgotten, and not explained by alternative hypotheses. Psychological Science, 7, 373-375.

Buss, D. M., Larsen, R. J., Westen, D., & Semmelroth, J. (1992). Sex differences in jealousy: Evolution, physiology, and psychology. Psychological Science, 3, 251-255.

Buss, D. M., & Schmitt, D. P. (1993). Sexual Strategies Theory: An evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychological Review, 100, 204-232.

Buss, D.M. & Schmitt, D.P. (1996). Strategic self-promotion and competition derogation: Sex and conflict effects on perceived effectiveness of mate attraction tactics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1185-1204.

Buss, D.M., & Shackelford, T.K. (1997). From vigilance to violence: Mate retention tactics in married couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 346-361.

Buss, D.M., Shackelford, T.K. (1997). Susceptibility to infidelity in the first year of marriage. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 193-221.

Buss, D.M., & Shackelford, T.K. (2008). Attractive women want it all: Good genes, economic investment, parenting proclivities, and emotional commitment. Evolutionary Psychology, 6, 134-146.

Buss, D.M., Shackelford, T.K., Chloe, J., Buunk, B.P., & Dijkstra, P. (2000). Distress about mating rivals. Personal Relationships, 7, 235-243.

Buss, D.M., Shackelford, T.K., Kirkpatrick, L.A., Chloe, J., Hasegawa, M., Hasegawa, T., & Bennett, K. (1999). Jealousy and beliefs about infidelity: Tests of competing hypotheses in the United States, Korea, and Japan. Personal Relationships, 6, 125-150.

Buss, D.M., & Shackelford, T.K., Kirkpatrick, L.A, Larsen, R.J. (2001). A half century of mate preferences: The cultural evolution of values. Journal of Marriage and Families, 63, 492-503.

Buss, D. M., Shackelford, T. K. & LeBlanc, G. J. (2000). Number of children desired and preferred spousal age difference: context-specific mate preference patterns across 37 cultures. Evolution and Human Behavior, 21, 323-331.

Buss, D.M., Shackelford, T.K., & McKibbin, W. F. (2008). The Mate Retention Inventory-Short Form (MRI-SF). Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 322-334.

Buunk, B.P., Angleitner, A., Obaid, V., & Buss, D.M. (1996). Sex differences in Jealousy in Evolutionary and Cultural Perspective: Tests from the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States. Psychological Science, 7, 359-363.

De La Ronde, C. & Swann, W. B. Jr. (1998). Partner verification: Restoring shattered images of our intimates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 374-382.

de Vries, M., Holland, R., Chenier, T., Starr, M., & Winkielman, P. (2010). Happiness cools the warm glow of familiarity: Psychophysiological evidence that mood modulates the familiarity-affect link. Psychological Science, 21, 321-328.

Downey, G., Freitas, A.L., Michaelis, B., & Khouri, J. (1998). The self-fulfilling prophecy in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 545-560.

Dunn, E. W., Huntsinger, J., Lun, J., Sinclair, S. (2008). The gift of similarity: How good and bad gifts influence relationships. Social Cognition, 26, 469-481.

Eastwick, P., Finkel, E. J., Mochon, D., & Ariely, D. (2007). Selective vs. unselective romantic desire: Not all reciprocity is created equal. Psychological Science, 18, 317-319.

Finkel, E. J., Burnette, J. L., & Scissors, L. E. (2007). Vengefully ever after: Destiny beliefs, state attachment anxiety, and forgiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Finkel, E. J., & Eastwick, P. W. (2009). Arbitrary social norms influence sex differences in romantic selectivity. Psychological Science, 20, 1290-1295.

Finkel, E. J., Eastwick, P. W., Karney, B. R., Reis, H. T., & Sprecher, S. (2012). Online dating: A critical analysis from the perspective of psychological science. Psychological Science In The Public Interest, 13, 3-66.

Finkel, E. J., Eastwick P. W. , & Matthews. (2007). Speed dating as an invaluable tool for studying romantic attraction: A methodological primer. Personal Relationships, 14, 149-166.

Fitzsimons, G. M. & Bargh, J. A. (2003). Thinking of you: Nonconscious pursuit of interpersonal goals associated with relationship partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 148-164.

Fitzsimons, G. M., & Finkel, E. J. (2011). Outsourcing self-regulation. Psychological Science, 22, 369-375.

Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (2000). Adult romantic attachment: Theoretical developments, emerging controversies, and unanswered questions. Review of General Psychology, 4, 132-154.

Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Airport separations: A naturalistic study of adult attachment dynamics in separating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1198-1212.

Frei, J. R., & Shaver, P. R. (2002). Respect in close relationships: Prototype definition, self-report assessment, and initial correlates. Personal Relationships, 9, 121-139.

Gangestad, S.W., Haselton, M.G., & Buss, D.M. (2006). Evolutionary foundations of cultural variation: Evoked culture and mate preferences. Psychological Inquiry, 17, 75-95.

Greer, A., & Buss, D. M. (1994). Tactics for promoting sexual encounters. The Journal of Sex Research, 5, 185-201.

Greiling, H., Buss, D.M. (2000). Women's Sexual Strategies: The hidden dimension of extra pair mating. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 929-963.

Haselton, M.G., & Buss, D.M. (2000). Error management theory: A new perspective on biases in cross-sex mind reading. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 81-91.

Haselton, M., Buss, D.M., Oubaid, V., & Angleitner, A. (2005). Sex, lies, and strategic interference: The psychology of deception between the sexes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31, 3-23.

Haselton, M.G., & Gildersleeve, K. (2011). Can men detect ovulation? Current Directions in Psychological
Science, 20,
87-92.

Haxby, J. V., Hoffman, E. Z., & Gobbini, M. I. (2000). The distributed human neural system for face perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 223-233.

Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. R. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511-524. [added 1/21/05]

Hill, S. E., & Buss, D. M. (2008). The mere presence of opposite-sex others on judgments of sexual and romantic desirability: Opposite effects for men and women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 635-647.

Hill, S. E. & Reeve, H. K. (2004). Mating Games: the Evolution of Human Mating Transactions. Behavioral Ecology, 15, 748-756.

IJzerman, H., & Semin, G. (2009). The thermometer of social relations: Mapping social proximity on temperature. Psychological Science, 20, 1214-1220.

Ireland, M. E., Slatcher, R. B., Eastwick, P. W., Scissors, L. E., Finkel, E. J., & Pennebaker, J. W. (in press). Language style matching predicts relationship initiation and stability. Psychological Science.

Judge, T. A., Hurst, C., & Simon, L. S. (2009). Does it pay to be smart, attractive, or confident (or all three)? Relationships among general mental ability, physical attractiveness, core self-evaluations, and income. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 742-755.

Kalick, S.M., Zebrowitz, L.A., Langlois, J.H., & Johnson, R.M. (1998). Does human facial attractiveness honestly advertise health? Longitudinal data on an evolutionary question. Psychological Science, 9, 8-13.

LaBrie, J., Cail, J., Hummer, J. F., & Lac, A. (2009). What men want: The role of reflective opposite-sex normative preferences in alcohol use among college women. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23, 157-162.

Lee, S. W. S., Schwartz, N., Taubman, D., & Hou, M. (2010). Sneezing in times of a flu pandemic: Public sneezing increases perception of unrelated risks and shifts preferences for federal spending. Psychological Science, 21, 375-377.

Levy, K. N., Blatt, S. J., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Attachment styles and parental representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 407-419.

Levy, S.R., Freitas, A.L., & Salovey, P. (2002). Construing action abstractly and blurring social distinctions: Implications for perceiving homogeneity among, but also empathizing with and helping, others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1224-1238.

Lieberman, D., Pillsworth, E. G., & Haselton, M. G. (2010). Kin affiliation across the ovulatory cycle: Females avoid fathers when fertile. Psychological Science.

Lydon, J., Menzies-Toman, D.A., Burton, K., & Bell, C. (2008). If-then contingencies and the differential effects of the availability of an attractive alternative on relationship maintenance for men and women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 50-65.

Lykken, D.T. & Tellegen, A. (1993). Is human mating adventitious or the result of lawful choice? A twin study of mate selection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 56-68.

Maner, J. K., Miller, S. L., Rouby, D. A., & Gailliot, M. T. (2009). Intrasexual vigilance: The implicit cognition of romantic rivalry. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 74-87.

McNulty, S. E., & Swann, W. B., Jr. (1994). Identity negotiation in roommate relationships: The self as architect and consequence of social reality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1012-1023.

Meston, C.M. & Buss, D.M. (2007). Why humans have sex. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 477-507.

Norton, M., Frost, J., & Ariely, D. (2007). Less is more: The lure of ambiguity, or why familiarity breeds contempt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 97-105.

Pascalis, O., deHaan, M., & Nelson, C. A. (2002). Is face processing species-specific during the first year of life? Science, 296, 1321-1323.

Perilloux, C. & Buss, D. M. (2008). Breaking up romantic relationships: Costs experienced and coping strategies deployed. Evolutionary Psychology, 6, 164-181.

Perilloux, C., Fleischman, D.S. & Buss, D. M. (2008). The daughter-guarding hypothesis: Parental influence on, and emotional reactions to, offspring's mating behavior. Evolutionary Psychology, 6, 217-233.

Pillsworth, E.G., Haselton, M.G., & Buss, D.M. (2004). Ovulatory shifts in female sexual desire. Journal of Sex Research, 41, 55-65.

Place, S. S., Todd, P. M., Penke, L., & Asendorpf, J. B. (2009). The ability to judge the romantic interest of others. Psychological Science, 20, p. 22-26.

Platek, S. M., & Singh, D. (2010). Optimal waist-to-hip ratios in women activate neural reward centers in men. PLoS ONE 5, e9042.

Rhodes, G., Zebrowitz, L. A., Clark, A., Kalick, S. M., Hightower, A., & McKay, R. (2001). Do facial averageness and symmetry signal health? Evolution and Human Behavior, 22, 31-46.

Roisman, G. I., Clausell, E., Holland, A., Fortuna, K., & Elieff, C. (2008). Adult romantic relationships as contexts of human development: A multimethod comparison of same-sex couples with opposite-sex dating, engaged, and married dyads. Developmental Psychology, 44, 91-101.

Rossion, B. (2002). Is sex categorization from faces really parallel to face Recognition? Visual Cognition, 9, 1003-1020.

Schmitt, D. P., & Buss, D. M. (1996). Mate attraction and competitor derogation: Context effects on perceived effectiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1185-1204.

Schmitt, D.P., & Buss, D.M. (2001). Human mate poaching: Tactics and temptations for infiltrating existing relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 894-917.

Schmitt, D. P., Shackelford, T. K. & Buss, D. M. (2001). Are men really more 'oriented' toward short-term mating than women? A critical review of theory and research. Psychology, Evolution & Gender, 3, 211-239.

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