Possible Exam 1 Questions

1. Robert Musil, an Austrian novelist, once said: "One does what one is; one becomes what one does." Use research in Chapter 4 to explain why you think one half of the quote is probably more likely to be true than the other half of the quote.

2. a) Use self-perception theory to explain why role playing is effective at producing attitude change.

b) Use self-perception theory to explain the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. Be sure to use the terminology of self-perception theory in your answer.

3. a) The self-serving bias has been described as a "prescription for sanity." Why is that an accurate description?

b) Why might the adaptation-level phenomenon be called a "prescription for insanity"?

4. Explain how the response of reactance increases our sense of relative deprivation and decreases our feelings of consistency and control.

5. Briefly describe any experiment mentioned in the text other than in Chapter 1 and other than the Milgram obedience studies.

    a) Explain how deception was used in that experiment.

    b) Describe one feature of the experiment that tells you it is an experment and not some other type of research.

    c) Why did the researchers conduct an experiment rather than a correlational study for the phenomenon they were studying?

6. You are trying to design a strategy to do one of the following: 1) persuade American consumers that McDonalds has tasty food (right now, Americans don't believe McDonalds' food is as tasty as that of other fast food restaurants) or 2) persuade prospective high school students in Illinois that they should attend North Central College. Pick one.
a) Explain why you might choose to make a persuasive appeal through the central route to persuasion for that product.
b) Using research on persuasion presented in class or the text, describe a strategy for trying to persuade that audience through the central route.

7. In one study, researchers predicted that increasing a person's self-esteem should increase that person's ability to make friends. The study looked for and found a positive correlation between people's self-esteem and the number of friends they have.

a) Did the study directly test the hypothesis? Explain.

b) Did the results support the hypothesis? Explain.

c) Were alternative explanations controlled for in this study? Explain.

8. In terms of a self-fulfilling prophecy, explain why the illusion of control and unrealistic optimism can be productive strategies.

9. Using social psychological concepts, explain why people with more material possessions do not typically report being happier than those with fewer possessions.

10. You are trying to design a strategy to do one of the following: 1) persuade American consumers that McDonalds has tasty food (right now, Americans don't believe McDonalds' food is as tasty as that of other fast food restaurants) or 2) persuade prospective high school students in Illinois that they should attend North Central College. Pick one.
a) Explain why you might choose to make a persuasive appeal through the peripheral route to persuasion for that product.
b) Using research on persuasion presented in class or the text, describe a strategy for trying to persuade that audience through the peripheral route.

11. a) Using research presented in the text, class or the article, explain how we manage negative feedback or failure and maintain a perception of control.

b) According to the research, what do we often do to maintain a perception of control in situations where we anticipate failure is likely? Explain.

 12. a) Is informational influence more likely to promote compliance or acceptance? Explain.

b) Is normative influence more likely to promote compliance or acceptance? Explain.

13. I am eating out at a restaurant with my friends. They have all ordered and now it is my turn to order. Using the research on what predicts conformity in Chapter 6, what would be three questions you would like to ask me about the situation to determine how likely it is that I will conform to what my friends ordered? Specifically, write the three questions, and briefly explain why you selected those questions in terms of the research.

14. a) North Central College has established a recycling program on campus with the blue bins. Use one of Cialdini's six persuasion principles to describe how the College could increase the number of people participating in the program. Be sure to identify the principles in your answer.

b) Use a second principle to explain how the College's efforts might fail to convince people to recycle.

c) Use a third principle to describe how the College might overcome the problem you mentioned in b).

15. According to Ch. 4, correspondent change typically only occurs under certain conditions. Use two of the conditions mentioned to describe how a political campaign could increase the likelihood that its efforts to change voters' attitutes could also change their behavior toward its candidate.

16. Use each of the three social motives discussed in class to explain why people conform.

17. You go to talk by a guest speaker on campus. At the end of the talk you notice everyone is giving the speaker a standing ovation. You then stand and applaud as well. Use two of the four types of influence that lead to conformity to explain why you might have given the speaker a standing ovation.