1. Choose three of the steps of behavior modification and, for each of the three steps, explain why specificity is important.
2. a) A student is competent at a particular task but has low self-efficacy for that task. How might a student develop low self-efficacy for a task even while being competent at the task?
b) Which type of model might be best for this type of student -- a coping model, a mastery model, or an incompetent model? Explain.
3. You have successfully extinguished Melissa's habit of interrupting others in small group discussions through the administration of consequences.
a) Why might spontaneous recovery of Melissa's behavior be a possibility in this situation?
b) Describe two specific strategies you can implement to help prevent spontaneous recovery of that behavior.
4. a) Briefly describe an experiment mentioned in the text (other than in Ch. 1). State the page number in the text where you found this experiment. Explain why the researcher(s) probably chose to conduct an experiment instead of a correlational study in that case.
b) Briefly describe a correlational study mentioned in the text (other than in Ch. 1). State the page number in the text where you found this correlational study. Explain why the researcher(s) probably chose to conduct a correlational study instead of an experiment in that case.5. Piaget and Vygotsky view cognitive development somewhat differently. Consider a child who is learning how to cut with scissors. Compare and contrast how Piaget and Vygotsky might describe how the child would learn that skill. Use the concepts of schema, zone of proximal development, and scaffolding in your answer.
6. Mr. B wanted to negatively reinforce student X on a fixed interval schedule while adhering to what research says are the best ways to administer consequences. So, at the beginning of each class period, Mr. B deducted 1 minute of recess for every time student X had made strange (and inappropriate) sounds the day before.
a) From that description, did Mr. B negatively reinforce student X on a fixed interval schedule? Explain.
b) Did Mr. B administer consequences in a manner consistent with principles of effective administration of punishers and reinforcers? Explain. Refer to at least two of the principles in your answer.
7. Ms. C wanted to positively punish student Y on a continuous schedule and then thin the schedule out while adhering to what research says are the best ways to administer consequences. So, at first, Ms. C took away computer privileges each time student Y was caught misusing the technology in the classroom. Eventually, Ms. C only withdrew these privileges every third time the student misused the technology.
a) Did Ms. C positively punish student Y on a continuous schedule and then thin out that schedule? Explain.
b) Did Ms. C administer a "natural" consequence? Explain.
8. a) Describe two ways a teacher could encourage forced retrieval of a skill or concept.
b) Use a specific theory of forgetting to explain why encouraging forced retrieval of a skill or concept could increase ease of retrieval of that skill or concept at a later time.
9. a) How can tutoring raise the self-efficacy of the tutor and also raise the self-efficacy of the "tutee"?
b) According to research, what are two factors that can increase the effectiveness of a model for the observer? Briefly explain how each factor can increase the effectiveness of the model.
10. a) According to schema theory, why should advance organizers be helpful for the learning of material?
b) According to schema theory, why should outlining be helpful in the retrieval of information?
11. On p. 144 of the text, the author includes a sentence that he says is the main point of Ch. 6.
a) Explain how the idea in the sentence is consistent with Vygotsky's zone of proximal development.
b) Describe two strategies mentioned in class or the text, consistent with the idea suggested in the sentence on p. 144, that a teacher could use to increase learning of information or ideas. Briefly explain how each strategy is consistent with that idea.
12. How does visual imagery play a role in each of the three levels of memory? Be sure to address each level of memory in your answer.
13. a) Describe two significant changes in a child's thinking in the transition from the preoperational stage to the concrete operational stage according to Piaget.
b) Describe one significant change in a child's thinking in the transition from the concrete operational stage to the formal operational stage according to Piaget.
c) Explain how what is happening in the transition from concrete thinking to formal thinking is a continuation, in a general sense, of the changes in the child's thinking from the preoperational stage to the concrete operational stage.
14. a) How can peer modeling provide effective scaffolding to students?
b) How can such scaffolding lead to self-regulation (Vygotsky)?
15. In terms of the information processing model discussed in class and the text, explain why personal relevance and distinctive examples are two important contributors to promoting effective storage and retrieval of information.
16. A parent comes up to you and says, "Hey, you took Ed Psych, didn't you? Maybe you can help me. I'm having a lot of trouble getting my kid to do his homework. Sometimes he says he can't do it, other times he says he just doesn't feel like it. I try to give him a lot of praise and encouragement. Whenever he brings home a good grade on something I try to praise him a lot for it and let him know he is very capable of doing that kind of work all the time. But it doesn't seem to motivate him at home. Am I praising him too much or should I stop using praise and try something else? What do you suggest?"
17. a) Name one of the techniques identified as high or moderate utility in the "Improving students' learning..." article. In terms of the Information Processing Model discussed in class and the text, explain why it makes sense that the technique you named would promote effective learning.
b) Name one of the techniques identified as low utility in the "Improving students' learning..." article. In terms of the Information Processing Model discussed in class and the text, explain why it makes sense that the technique you named would not promote effective learning.