Possible Exam 4 Questions


1. Use information from the chapter on Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders to illustrate the point that most behaviors (including schizophrenia) have multiple causes.

2. a) Would a phobia be considered a trait? Explain.

b) According to the field of psychology, what is the difference between being unique and being abnormal?

3. Mr. A has an anxiety disorder. (Name a specific one.) You are his therapist.

a) Why is Mr. A's behavior likely labeled a disorder by psychology?

b) You have a variety of therapeutic approaches available to you. Choose any approach described in text or the class other than chemotherapy. Describe how you would use this approach to deal with Mr. A's symptoms.

4. "Young boys (age 6) exhibiting a cluster of extreme personality traits, including impulsiveness, excitability, and lack of fear in new situations, are most likely to use both legal and illicit drugs in their early teens."

a) Does this research describe a correlation or a causal relationship? Explain.

b) If you said it described a correlation, change the wording so it describes a causal relationship. If you said it describes a causal relationship, change the wording so it only describes a correlation.

5. According to the chapter on the History of Mental Illness, how have the somatogenic and psychogenic explanations of mental illness combined into today's common explanations and treatments of mental illness?

6. Describe two examples of how certain types of therapy work best on certain types of disorders. Use one type of therapy and one disorder for one example. Use a different type of therapy and a different disorder for the second example.

7. a) What does it mean to say that each of the five clusters of traits in the Big 5 are independent of each other?

b) How is it possible to agree with both sides of the person-situation debate?

8. Name a category of disorder other than anxiety disorders. For disorders within the category you named,

a) briefly describe the kinds of behavior that characterize that type of disorder;

b) explain how many of us exhibit some degree of that type of behavior but are not considered mentally ill;

c) explain how the behavior of individuals with that type of disorder can be interpreted as an attempt to adapt to their environment even though it is considered abnormal.

9. a) Both Freud and the trait theorists/researchers consider patterns of behavior useful to identify. However, why would Freud consider what the trait perspective does with those patterns of behavior to be rather trivial or superficial?

b) According to Freud, what indicates that even as normal adults we have not escaped the influence of our repressed desires? Explain.


Possible Terms




defense mechanisms



dissociative disorders


bipolar disorder

obsessive-compulsive disorder




systematic desensitization

aversive conditioning


cognitive-behavioral therapy


unconditional positive regard

exposure therapy