1. Define the following terms. (4 pts. each)

object permanence

the connectivity principle

genetic predisposition

negative reinforcer

random assignment

2. Describe how expectation is important in classical conditioning. Describe how expectation is important in operant conditioning. Do NOT use any examples in your answer. (10 pts.)

3. Research has found that if a child at age 8 watches a lot of violent television then that child is more likely to be violent at age 19 than a child who did not watch violent television at age 8.

What, if any, causal relationship is described in the above finding? Explain.

What, if any, correlation is described in the above finding? Explain.

Upon hearing of the above research, Mr. Jones deprived his eight-year old son of watching any violent television. The son was not violent at age 19. What, if anything, did Mr. Jones prove? Explain. (10 pts.)

4. Briefly describe an experiment that studied the development of visual perception. Explain how the results could be interpreted as suggesting an interaction of nature and nurture. (10 pts.)

5. As you know, the study of how rats and pigeons learn was important in the development of theories about how humans learn. However, some have questioned whether or not results from research on animals can be applied to human behavior. How is that criticism similar to the criticism of the "college sophomore" problem? What is one response psychologists give to answer the "college sophomore" criticism? (10 pts.)

6. Describe how a child moves from one of Piaget's stages to the next through the process of assimilation and accommodation. Identify specific stages in your answer.

There is a considerable amount of research that supports the main ideas of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. So why is it called a theory? (10 pts.)

7. Use at least 2 concepts from Chapter 4 (Sensation and Perception) to illustrate that the process of turning sensations into perceptions can involve ambiguity and distortion. (10 pts.)

8. Describe a behavior that you exhibit every day that you think is probably influenced by both heredity and environment. Explain how the two factors might work together to affect this behavior. (10 pts.)

9. Describe how you use maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal to prepare for tests. Explain how schemas can aid in the process of elaborative rehearsal. (10 pts.)