you should talk to your baby
suggests Southern slavery turns White people into Republicans 150 years
language skills reduce preschool tantrums, study finds
is your brain on exercise
scans of hoarders reveal why they never de-clutter
sex "leads to bad moods" in later life
walked by men are more aggressive
show exercise reduces dementia risk
experiences shrink part of the brain
coffee hour that's best for blood sugar
Alzheimer's? No evidence you can: Panel
A's in high school may mean better health later in life
brown rice to cut diabetes risk
rates affect IQ tests scores: Study
a higher G.P.A.? Go to a private college
smiling promotes longevity
wards off heart disease, study suggests
animations give science students a boost
Texting and IM-ing doesn't affect spelling!
"can support mentally ill"
more latrines: Peer pressure better than financial assistance
rush... to prison? Study says lots of candy could lead to violence
high school students are most likely to graduate from college?
alcohol blur cues?
between over-indebtedness and obesity identified
study, texting lifts crash risk by large margin
reverses memory impairment in mice with Alzheimer's symptoms
with higher IQs make wiser economic choices, study finds
causes increase in teen dating violence
school recess improves classroom behavior
to two languages carries far-reaching
users get worse grades in college
"improves language skill"
associated wiv superior reading skills
phones disrupt teens' sleep
suggests attending religious services sharply cuts risk of death
attendance boosts immunity
in room seems to cut infants' risk of crib death
pays: Men who hold traditional views of women earn more than men who don't,
implants lower cancer risks but boost suicides
often associated with psychiatric disorders
emotions after trauma predicts worse outcomes
teachers boost student scores
a food diary doubles diet weight loss, study suggests
bar equals more beer
fatty fish lowers risk of dementia
Teen use of pot can lead to dependency, mental illness
children found smarter
diet can help determine sex of child: study
seem to skew scientific success
harms kids' mental health: Study
be a Super Bowl statistic: Stress of watching the big game can be hazardous
to heart, research suggests
your team wins) Winning
World Cup lowers heart attack deaths
meals curb teen eating disorders
carotene supplements slow down cognitive decline
raises blood pressure in obese kids: Study
isolation may have a negative effect on intellectual abilities
frequent TV viewing causes behavior problems
affects how people perceive their quality of life
voiced men "have more kids"
loss in elderly linked to mental impairment
your neighbourhood cause schizophrenia?
parents in therapy doubles success rates for bulimia treatment
videos may hinder baby development: Study
math helps young scientists
girls less likely to attend college, research shows
over spilled semen: Why women who don't use condoms feel happier
parents are correct, scholars report: Studying pays off
cards can make you fat
changes women's taste in men
we give in to temptation
surprising secret to a long life: Stay in school
with video game skill appear to perform better in simulated surgery skills
cuts breast cancer risk
diet articles could be unhealthy
personalities: Positive mood guards against getting colds
children more likely to become vegetarian
of hell makes us richer, Fed says
really does make us feel better
a family affair? Willingness to take risks and trust others are inherited,
triggered ancient ice age
DNA trail: Gene variant tied to developmental disorder
drive stays in gear with antidepressant bupropion
prosper with Montessori method
lessons improve kids' brain development, memory: study
a helmet puts cyclists at risk, suggests research
hands reduces moral taint
parents have fat kids
link to autism "dispelled"
or lose: Memory retention enhanced by sleep
violent media make Alvaro Castillo kill his father?
lyrics prompt teens to have sex (actual
watching sex on television influence teens' sexual activity?
cues ruin men's decisiveness
"cuts public speaking stress"
ills imperil partners' survival
anxiety link to ecstasy use
largely determined by heredity
causes obesity, researchers assert
bias affects brain activity, study finds
creative = more sexually active?
children fuels aggression, anxiety
global warming: Become a pirate
breakfast makes girls thinner
TV habits tied to poorer test scores ; TV
-- any TV -- harms toddlers, study claims
treatment improves teens' grades, confidence
pizza "cuts cancer risk"
linked to obesity in city dwellers ; Researchers
find no obesity, sprawl link
may ward off Alzheimer's
the booze: Cactus extract dulls hangovers
links TV to teen sexual activity
doesn't influence kids' popularity: Study
people "born in summer"
TV "is bad for children"
drug use linked to truancy
self-esteem "shrinks brain"
sweets, live longer
linked to Alzheimer's Disease
drug helps paralyzed mice walk
boosts immunity, improves health habits
Games "Increase Aggression"
beer prices "cut" gonorrhoea rates
people six times more likely to be jailed than whites (in UK)
Test Questions on this Topic
Might Signal Parkinson's
unsolicited sexual encounters lead to life of crime
your hands" signs only work for women
fish prevents crime
Commercial - if we do this then we will live longer
correlations in social neuroscience"
& Bo's Correlation & Causality Blog
Poll Shows Correlation is Causation"
To the left
are links to popular press articles regarding a variety of research studies
and their results. The text in the links (e.g., "Pill changes women's
taste in men") is the actual headline of those popular press articles.
Some of the headlines suggest a causal relationship between two variables,
and some simply suggest a correlation between two variables. Unfortunately,
the headlines of articles in the popular media often misrepresent the
research on which they are based. Many of the headlines to the left suggest
causal relationships when, upon closer reading of the article itself,
one finds that the research was correlational in nature, and the headline
is not justified.
So, I (Jon
Mueller) use this resource in a variety of ways to help my students identify
the language of causal relationships and correlations, identify the tell-tale
signs that an experiment or a correlational study is being described in
the media when there is no mention of the type of study, and to learn
how to evaluate the quality and nature of evidence in judging the merit
of a claim. Below are a few assignments that can be used with this resource.
If you think of or develop any other such assignments I would love to
hear about them. Just send me a note or example at email@example.com.
or correlational language?
by Maria Vita
the Conversation by John Norland (Although this assignment does not
use the links on this page, it provides a very good activity for considering
correlation and causation.)
Writing Analysis by Bill Zachry
Assignment by Tim Robicheaux
12 by Jon Mueller
Causal and Non-causal Language by Heather Coon
Headline Match Game by Jon Mueller